Today the market of goods and services represents a huge range of all kinds of products. Small and large businesses produce consumer goods that people use in everyday life. In the economic sphere, it is customary to distinguish between an identical product and a homogeneous one. These concepts are necessary for the formation of a market price
In many companies there is a document that discloses the job responsibilities of a person of a particular profession. Most state-owned companies call them job descriptions and maintain them only for formal purposes. But what is the true purpose of an employee's to-do list?
The contribution of the best scientists remains relevant even several centuries after their death. This is not only true of outstanding physicists or mathematicians, well-known economists also deserve lasting fame. Let's list some of the most capable scientists and their achievements
The concept of depreciation is used today in various areas of human life. So, in a technical sense, the term is equivalent to the process of mitigation, in insurance - to the depreciation of an object. This article discusses depreciation in the economy and how it is calculated
Analyze market financial risks entrusted to specialists who have sufficient experience and qualifications. The task of such a manager is to ensure the protection of the assets and profits of the company from losses incurred as a result of changes and fluctuations in interest rates, exchange rates and other economic and financial phenomena
In this material, the reader will get acquainted with such concepts as currency conversion and conversion rate. In addition, the article talks about the impact of macroeconomic factors on the exchange rate
An organization should be understood as an open and complex system that receives resources from the external (economic) environment, and also delivers its product to it. In our article, we will consider the concept and characteristics of the presented category, as well as other equally important aspects of the issue
In the modern world, in our consumer society, the market for goods and services occupies almost a dominant position. So, probably, it should be, because everyone, to the best of his ability, buys various goods and uses the services he needs. Moreover, almost always a product and a service are complementary, not contradictory concepts. Sometimes even interpenetrating
UNECE is one of five regional commissions within the United Nations. It was established in 1947 with the aim of promoting economic integration among member states. To date, the European Commission includes 56 countries. It reports to the Economic and Social Council and is headquartered in Geneva
Japan's economy is the third largest nominal gross domestic product. The country is a member of the so-called Big Seven - the club of the most developed countries in the world. Japan's GDP in 2015 was US$4,123.26 billion. The state is the third largest car manufacturer. Japan is one of the most innovative countries in the world. Production in it is focused on the production of high-tech products
Economic modeling is an extremely important component of many processes in this scientific field, which allows you to analyze, predict and influence certain processes or phenomena occurring in the course of economic movement. In this article, this topic will be considered in as much detail as possible
The article reveals in simple terms the essence and purpose of convertible bonds, their types and parameters. The benefits and advantages of use for issuing enterprises and potential investors, as well as the risks associated with them for both parties are described
How can I test a certain system? To do this, indicators were invented. In production they are one, in technology they are different, and in the economy they are third. All of them are designed with a specific purpose in mind. What macroeconomic indicators of the economy are currently used? And what do they let you know?
Unemployment in a country can be compared to employee turnover in a company - they have a lot of similarities. An increase in these indicators above the norm is a formidable sign that not everything is in order in the Danish kingdom. The reasons for the increase can be very different, they need to be de alt with
The main indicators of macroeconomic development are GDP and GNP, on the basis of which similar indicators of the second level are calculated. When forecasting and planning the budget, the volume of GDP and the level of inflation are taken into account. These indicators should not only be taken into account in the dynamics of one state, but also compared with the world
There are few miners, but many consumers. There is a brand of coal for every need. Features of different grades of coal. How to decipher the brand of coal?
The 20th century is the century of globalization and scientific progress. Mankind has conquered space, tamed the energy of the atom, unraveled many secrets of mother nature. At the same time, the twentieth century brought us a number of global problems - environmental, demographic, energy, socio-economic. In this article, we will talk about one of them in detail. It will be about the causes, scale and possible ways to solve the food problem
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of government support in such an area of today's life as the digital economy. By setting the development of electronic technologies as a priority, the government is taking important steps to accelerate the growth of the state as a whole
For many people, the UK is associated with unchanging prosperity, security and tranquility. For most Russians, foggy Albion (as this country is sometimes called) is associated primarily with polite Englishmen dressed in black tuxedos and happily talking about the weather over a cup of tea
The country with the highest living standards has long served as an example of successful economic development according to its own model of "capitalism with a human face". The capital of Sweden is the main showcase of achievements. How many people live in Stockholm and how is described in this short article
If we consider a single person, then the choice of the method of accumulating money, the frequency of certain purchases, the way of earning - all this is economic behavior. It is worth noting that it is different for each individual and depends on many factors
The poorest country in the post-Soviet space lives mainly on agriculture, minerals and remittances from citizens working abroad, mainly in Russia. Nevertheless, the economy of Tajikistan after the end of the civil war in 1997 has been steadily growing at a fairly high rate
The list of the richest countries is determined by three structures: the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Each of them uses its own features of calculating the quantity and value produced by a particular country, so the data may vary slightly, as well as the list of GDP by country compiled by them
In the last decade, the topic of energy resources has been increasingly covered by the media. Oil is no exception. The cost of this type of hydrocarbon raw material is formed depending on the trading exchange, as well as its grade. Oil grades are characterized by their chemical composition and place of origin, which directly affects their value
Some Russian and Western political analysts argue that Russia is dependent on the export of hydrocarbons. Everything is very simple. After all, Russia is a large global gasoline dispenser. The term "oil needle" implies dependence on income received from the export of "black gold". In this situation, the country's economy develops only when prices for petroleum products are stable. Immediately with the fall in the cost of a barrel in such a state, economic collapse begins
Swedish GDP has been showing significant growth for a long time. The country's economy is among the ten leading economies in the world. Sweden is called the country of socialism. What is the secret of the Swedish economic miracle? Let's figure it out
The initial (maximum) contract price represents the marginal cost of concluding a contract. It is indicated in the information card of the procurement documentation, notice or invitation. NMCC determines the starting amount, above which the proposals of the participants cannot be
Statistical data are, perhaps, the basis without which the study of any socio-economic process or phenomenon is not possible. Statistical observation helps scientists in their collection, the quality of which largely determines the correctness of the final conclusions. Its object is a set of studied social phenomena, each of which is divided into separate primary elements to simplify the study
Russian Mints are high-tech production organizations specializing in the production of coins and insignia, operating under the patronage of the government in a strict secret regime
Reorganization is a process that can take one of four forms. Let's consider each of them
The average salary of a nurse in Russia, who is the main assistant to a doctor, varies depending on the region and the duties of a specialist. The approximate price range of salaries varies from 20 to 27 thousand rubles
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in many cities, the demographic situation has deteriorated significantly. Even where there was a stable growth before, the dynamics became negative. Only after some time, the indicators in some regions changed to positive ones. But an increase in the number of inhabitants often provided not a decrease in mortality and an increase in the birth rate, but an increase in migration
After the rapid depreciation of the ruble in 2014, which peaked at the end of the year, the exchange rate fell slightly and stabilized at the same level. And in 2016, there was a steady trend of strengthening the national currency, which became more pronounced this year. Why is the ruble strengthening if there is no economic growth? How good or bad is that?
This article will focus on the question of why multiple sources of income are needed and how they can be created
In our time in the world there are a huge number of different financial structures that promise their depositors this or that "reward" in the future, as a rule, much more than you can get with a bank deposit. One of these structures is the financial pyramid. Sometimes it is called investment, but this does not change the essence of the matter
The average subsistence minimum is a value that has a conditional value, which is necessary in order to calculate the minimum budget assumed to maintain a normal standard of living for the population. This indicator is calculated in each country separately and is based on the daily needs of a person. Together, the money spent on provision forms the minimum amount that must be paid to citizens. What is the average living wage in Russia?
Baikonur Cosmodrome, where 1,500 spacecraft have been launched over the past half century, is still the leader in terms of the number of launches
Modern living conditions dictate the need for the rapid development of the global transport system. The economy and social sphere of any state directly depends on the rational organization of transport systems, including both passenger and cargo transportation
The task of any self-respecting government is to increase the we alth and living standards of their country, to observe its interests in domestic politics and on the world stage. It is important by what means and methods this is done, and whether it is to the detriment of foreign neighbors
At the present stage of development in industrial production, there is a transition to advanced technologies, as well as the desire to achieve positive characteristics in the operation of existing and project equipment. Management in technical systems involves minimizing any production losses