Table of contents:
- Geographic location
- Features of the weather on the Kola Peninsula
- Murmansk region: climate type
- Relief and its influence on climatic uniqueness
- The influence of the Barents Sea on the weather
- Sights of the region
- The most beautiful time of the year
- Interesting facts
Murmansk region is a unique place with peculiar vegetation and atypical seasons. The climate of the Murmansk region has no analogues, it is incomparable even with those regions that are located in similar latitudes. This is due to the geographical location of the region. Despite the harsh weather conditions, there are interesting places, amazing flora and fauna, as well as unique natural phenomena.
Climate features of the Murmansk region, briefly, can be explained in such a way that it is largely due to the position of the region. A significant part of the region is located on the Kola Peninsula, capturing the adjacent territories of the mainland from the western and southwestern parts. The total area of the northern region is 144.9 square kilometers. From three sides (north, south, east) this territory is washed by the Barents and White seas.
In the south, the region borders on Karelia. It has five districts,several cities and seven closed territorial entities, the movement of which is carried out in accordance with the access system. The region also borders Finland and Norway.
Since most of the territory is outside the Arctic Circle, the climate there is subarctic. The climate of the Murmansk region has a number of features. It is characterized by a long winter, heavy rainfall, and an atypical course of the seasons. But, despite the long winter and the short period of heat, the earth has time to thaw. Therefore, permafrost is not typical for this area, despite the fact that the territory is located beyond the Arctic Circle. Permafrost occurs in separate pieces, making up about 15 percent of the total area.
Features of the weather on the Kola Peninsula
Despite the fact that the region is located in northern latitudes, the climate of the Murmansk region is characterized by a certain softness. There is a large amount of precipitation here, and it is quite humid throughout the year.
The proximity of the Atlantic Ocean has a dominant influence on the weather. Warm and moist air from the Atlantic Ocean softens the climate, making winter less harsh.
Murmansk region: climate type
The cold air masses coming from the Arctic also influence the weather conditions. This air brings with it cold, dry winds. The average wind speed on the coast reaches 8 meters per second. And up to 5 meters per second in depthKola Peninsula.
Thus, low temperatures, strong winds from the Arctic, combined with the humid air of the Atlantic, lead to the fact that the cold here is much more difficult to bear. This combination enhances the feeling of frost.
The climate of the Murmansk region is similar to the subarctic climate. At the same time, the average annual temperature ranges from 0°C on the coast of the Barents Sea to -2°C near the White Sea. Inland, the temperature drops even more and is in the range of -4°C and -5°C.
Relief and its influence on climatic uniqueness
The area has a varied landscape: mountains and plains, marshy lowlands and numerous lakes and rivers.
In the central part are the Khibiny Mountains, which are the highest on the Kola Peninsula. And also on the territory of the federation, these are the highest mountain ranges in comparison with those territories that are beyond the Arctic Circle. This is one of the favorite places for guests of the region.
Slightly to the west lie low mountains: Wolf, Greasy tundra, Chuna and others. Their height does not exceed a thousand meters. Lakes and rivers with clear and clean water are located in numerous tectonic faults. This water is mostly weakly mineralized and contains valuable species of fish.
A large area is still flat. To the south are swamps. The abundance of water also adds moisture.
The influence of the Barents Sea on the weather
BarentsThe sea has a significant impact on the climate of the Murmansk region. This sea does not freeze even in winter. Due to the warm current of the Gulf Stream, there is high humidity, frequent fogs, clouds and storms. Warm currents heat the Kola Peninsula from the north, neutralizing the influence of the Arctic Ocean to a certain extent. Warm air coming from the sea makes the winter relatively warm, therefore, despite the fact that it lasts here for about six months, there are no severe frosts here. Again, in comparison with similar territories located in northern latitudes.
The coldest month is February. This is due to the fact that the Arctic Ocean at this time cools as much as possible and the effect of Arctic cold during this period is maximum. At this time, on the coast, frost can reach temperatures up to -40 °C. The farther from the coast, the colder it gets. And on the flat part, frosts can reach -50 °С.
Also, the characteristic of the climate of the Murmansk region contains the following indicators:
- relatively warm winter;
- frosts are not uncommon in summer;
- numerous precipitation, with an annual amount of 500 millimeters in the flat terrain and up to 1200 millimeters in the mountains;
- frequent weather changes due to the influence of Atlantic cyclones and Arctic winds: thaws are not uncommon in winter, and snowfalls can occur in summer.
The temperature on the coast is significantly different from the rest of the territory. Just like the climate on the plains and in the mountains. It gets colder as it deepens into the continent.
Sights of the region
Rich natural landscapes, mountains interspersed with plains, northern lakes and rivers, all this attracts many tourists here. There is so much to see and do here.
Thus, in the area of Lake Bolshoy Vudyavr, the city of Kirovsk is located, which is a famous ski resort in the north of Russia. The city, surrounded on three sides by the Khibiny mountains, has a developed infrastructure for winter sports. Kirovsk of the Murmansk region has a moderately cold climate, also with a large amount of precipitation, which peaks in June. The least rainfall occurs in February.
In general, weather conditions are favorable for the development of skiing, kayaking on mountain rivers, extreme skiing in untested places. These slopes are suitable for both beginners and experienced skiers, as there are slopes of different difficulty levels.
The climate of the Murmansk region favors the development of such a popular type of recreation as fishing. Rare species of northern fish such as grayling, trout and brown trout are found in abundance in local lakes.
The most beautiful time of the year
It is believed that the most beautiful time of the region is the beginning of autumn. When it is still relatively warm, the tundra is filled with a variety of plants. For some, this is still a flowering period, others bear fruit with berries, leaves begin to turn yellow on the trees. Such a rich color scheme makes the area unique. It is this period that can help create a uniquephoto shoots for tourists.
Mostly this picture can be observed in September. However, such a riot of colors does not last long. And by October, frosts can destroy part of the beauty.
Polar night comes here from the end of November and lasts until mid-January. During this period, the sun does not appear in the sky at all, the region plunges into pitch darkness. This has a somewhat depressing effect on the population.
In the twentieth of May, the polar day begins, when the sun does not leave the sky. This continues until July 22.
Despite the long winter, polar nights, all this does not affect the animals that have adapted to life in these latitudes.
One of the most beautiful phenomena in the region are flashes of aurora borealis. They are especially well seen at night, when the sky is illuminated by the glow of green, blue, yellow and reddish hues.
Climatic features, frequent weather changes, long winters and short summers have made this region unique. Many films are often filmed here, sportsmen, tourists and lovers of fishing love these places.