Table of contents:
- Financial planning category
- Manage your finances today
- Actual tasks
- What benefits doestool?
- Key target
- Category content
- Payment calendar example
- Calculation of net flow
- Category classification
- Other species
- Calendar of management expenses
- Product sales calendar
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
Payment calendar is the main component of the operational financial planning of any organization. In another way, it is called a cash flow plan. A payment calendar is drawn up according to the rule, according to which all expenses are supported by valid sources of money. This tool reflects real cash flows both in terms of income and expenditure. In our article, we will consider the definition, types of payment calendar, touch on the issues of use and maintenance, and also give an example of its design.
Financial planning category
Today, the construction of financial plans occupies an important position in the financial resources management system of the structure. In the planning process, the heads of organizations have the opportunity to assess the state of financial resources, identify ways to increase the total amount of money and directions for their most effective use. At the same time, solutionsmanagement plan are based on the analysis of financial information.
Payment calendar is a plan for spending and receiving money. It is being developed for the coming year, and the breakdown by month is relevant. In other words, it is the money flow budget. The payment calendar includes only a general base for managing the cash flows of an enterprise. During a monthly period, these flows can be characterized by a high level of instability and dynamics. Operational control and management of financial resources can help to get rid of these shortcomings.
Manage your finances today
Management of financial resources in modern conditions is an integral element that allows you to succeed in business. An enterprise that quickly and accurately monitors the dynamics of expenses, income and other key financial indicators, one way or another, must have sufficient information base to make the right financial and management decisions that are necessary for the company's growth.
Operational financial management should be understood as a set of technological, organizational and methodological measures that fully ensure the management of current financial transactions, as well as the financial resources of the organization. It's about the short term. Usually this period does not exceed one month. Operational resource management, unlike the budgeting system, plans payments in the most detailed form, that is, according to the purpose of the payment andrelevant counterparty. It uses significant detailing of planning timeframes (up to a day).
Payment calendar is the main tool associated with the operational management of the structure's finances. It is a planning document that provides daily management of the expenditure and receipt of the company's financial resources.
Planning a payment calendar allows you to solve the following tasks:
- Reducing the forecast options for the plan for spending and receiving money (today it is customary to single out optimistic, pessimistic and realistic types) to one real task related to the formation of the company's cash flows within a monthly period.
- Synchronization of cash flows of both negative and positive types, and to the extent possible. It is worth noting that it is able to increase the level of efficiency of the company's cash flow.
- Compiling a payment calendar allows you to ensure the priority of cash payments of the structure in accordance with the criterion of their impact on financial performance.
- Ensuring the necessary absolute liquidity of the cash flow of the structure, and to the maximum extent. In another way, it can be called maintaining and increasing the level of solvency within the short term.
- Inclusion of cash flow management in the system of operational controlling (and therefore actual monitoring) of the financial work of the enterprise.
What benefits doestool?
When implementing a payment calendar for receipts and expenditures, the organization has the following benefits:
- The possibility of predicting the state of the company in financial terms is becoming relevant.
- The level of transparency of management processes in relation to the expenses and income of the organization is increasing.
- Increases the validity and flexibility of decisions due to changes in the economic conditions of the company.
- The degree of reliability and confidence in the structure on the part of the parent organization, investors and creditors is increasing.
- The company's credit policy is being optimized.
The main purpose of the payment calendar is to create a schedule of cash flows for the next period. As a rule, it varies from a couple of business days to a month. The schedule should be such as to guarantee the repayment of all current payments, to minimize excess money in the accounts and, of course, to prevent cash gaps.
How to make a payment calendar? It is important to note that its content may be different. It all depends primarily on the preferences of interested employees and the specifics of the business. However, it should include data related to inflows and outflows, as well as planned cash balances (usually broken down by source and day).
Payment calendar example
Using the table below, consider an example of this tool designed for an auto parts store. In order to make it convenient to perceive information, the maintenance of the payment calendar is displayed for 5 working days, and not for a monthly period.
|Indicator name||Total for a week||Day 1||Day 2||Day 3||Day 4||Day 5|
|The balance of money for the beginning. weeks||39 649||39 650||50 835||–53 029||–13 650||53 711|
|Positive Flow||736 495||147 299||147 299||147 299||147 299||147 299|
|Revenue from the sale of spare parts (including)||
|147 299||147 299||147 299||147 299||147 299|
|Negative flow||712 379||136 114||251 163||107 920||79 938||137 244|
This includes the following categories:
Payment for renting the premises
|State duty to the judiciary||9660||9660|
|Employee salaries||71 666||71 666|
|Software, office equipment, computers||29 230||29 230|
|Mounting an advertising sign||11 530||11 530|
|Maintenance and repair of cash registers||800||800|
|Payment for the supply of auto parts||531 626||106 325||212 650||95 693||53 163||63 795|
|Security functions of personnel||2000||2000|
|Social plan contributions||12 483||12 483|
|Insurance||14 400||14 400|
|Net cash flow||24 116||11 185||–103 84||39 379||67 361||10 055|
|Weekend balance||63 765||50 835||–53 029||–13 650||53 711||63 766|
Information related to the distribution of expenses over time, one way or another, will help to find the most risky moments (in terms of the appearance of cash gaps) and implement measures to redistribute the burden of payments (for example, spread over different periods of salary payments and transfers tax payments to the state budget, use the loan in a timely manner, etc.). So, in the example above, for the upcoming time period, it is expected to receive a positive cash flow equal to 736,495.40 rubles. Negative cash flow for the week is RUB 712,379.27
Calculation of net flow
Thus, the net cash flow will be equal to 24,116.13 rubles. (increase in the balance from 39,648.96 rubles to 63,765.09 rubles). If we distribute the planned positive as well as negative cash flows in accordance with the days (based on the invoices for payment that are issued, as well as the payment terms that are provided for by the contracts), then it will turn out that at the end of the 2nd day the structure will have a cash deficit, the amount of which will be 53,029.35 rubles. In order to eliminate it, it is necessary to transfer part of the planned payments (for example, payment for purchased commercial products from suppliers or the purchase of office equipment, furniture) to the next day. If this arrangement is not possible, you should use a short-term bank loan in the form of an overdraft.
Let's analyze the main types of payment calendar. The most common form of the tool, which is used in the operational planning of enterprise cash flows, is considered to be its formation in the context of the following sections:
- Schedule of upcoming cash receipts.
- Schedule of payments to be made.
If the planned type of cash flow is one-sided (exclusively negative or only positive), then the calendar is developed in the form of a single corresponding section.
Among the main varieties of the tool, it should be notedthe following:
- Tax calendar. Such a planning document is drawn up for the enterprise as a whole. As a rule, it contains a single section called "tax payment schedule". Payments of a refundable nature for tax recalculations of money are included according to the standards in the calendar of collection of receivables. This payment calendar indicates the amounts of all types of taxes, fees and other tax payments that are transferred by the enterprise to budgets of various values, as well as to off-budget funds. It is worth noting that the final day of the established period for the transfer of taxes of all types is usually chosen as the calendar date of payment.
- Receivables collection calendar. This type of payment calendar is usually formed according to the structure as a whole, although if there is a specialized unit, in particular a credit department, it may cover the grouping of payments exclusively from this responsibility center.
In addition to the above, there are the following types of categories:
- Calendar for servicing financial loans. According to the current international practice on reporting and forecasting cash flows, the servicing of such loans is reflected in the operational work of the enterprise, and not financial.
- Calendar of salary payments. Such a tool is developed, as a rule, at enterprises that use a multi-stage schedule for the payment of wages to employees of various structuralunits (departments, branches, workshops, etc.).
- The calendar (budget) in which inventories are formed is developed according to the standards for the corresponding cost centers, in other words, for certain structural units that implement production support in the material and technical terms.
Calendar of management expenses
Another type of tool is the budget (calendar) of management expenses. It is worth noting that its composition reflects:
- payments related to the purchase of office supplies;
- office equipment and computer programs not included in non-current assets;
- payments for postal and communication costs;
- travel expenses;
- other articles related to enterprise management.
It is important to note that the exception here is the labor costs of employees who carry out professional activities in the administration and management department.
Product sales calendar
In conclusion, consider the last type of budget, which is considered one of the main ones. We are talking about the payment calendar for the sale of marketable products. This form of reporting is developed, as a rule, in the context of profit centers or income centers of the enterprise. Such a payment calendar contains two sections: “expenditure schedule” and “receipt schedule”. The first section shows the receipt of money as a result of cash payments for the product. If the relevant responsibility center provides collection controlreceivables according to settlements with buyers of a commercial product, then this section also reflects this type of income. The second section shows the costs of marketing, advertising, maintaining the distribution network, and so on.
It is worth noting that we have not considered all the currently known varieties of the category. So, there is a payment calendar for creating a portfolio of long-term cash investments, a capital budget (payment calendar) for implementing a real investment program, a capital budget (calendar) for individual investment projects, and so on.
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