Climate of the Sverdlovsk region: description, characteristics and features

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Climate of the Sverdlovsk region: description, characteristics and features
Climate of the Sverdlovsk region: description, characteristics and features
Anonim

Generalized average indicators of weather changes over a long period are called climate. It is a regular repetition of certain types of weather, which is distinguished by certain parameters of averaged climatic readings.

Location of the region

Sverdlovsk region is located in Eurasia, in the central part of the mainland. Its position on the continent, as well as its remoteness from the Atlantic Ocean and other seas, influence the formation of the climate. The region is located between 56 and 62 degrees north latitude. It is located in the middle latitudes, in the temperate zone. This area is characterized by excessive moisture, which sets the tone for the nature of the area.

Most of it is in the taiga zone. Forest-steppe landscapes prevail only in the southeastern part of the Sverdlovsk region. Altitudinal changes in climatic conditions are characteristic of mountainous areas. In the region of the Ural Mountains, there is an altitudinal change in soil and vegetation cover and wildlife from mountain taiga to tundra.

Pretty much the weatherThe Sverdlovsk region is determined by the transfer of air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the influence of dry air layers that come from the Kazakh steppes. The cold air from the Arctic region also plays an important role.

The role of the Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (ridge) do not differ in height, but they are still a barrier to the routes of air masses from the West. This is a natural barrier to air currents that move from the west to the east of Eurasia. Mountains affect the direction of movement of anticyclones and cyclones, significantly slowing down their movement.

Foothills of the Ural Mountains in the Sverdlovsk region

However, there are no obstacles to the movement of air flows from south to north, as well as from north to south. This factor, as well as the specific terrain of the Sverdlovsk region, leads to the fact that it becomes open to the penetration of Arctic air here and the invasion of warm air masses from the south from the deserts of Central Asia.

Climatic features

The air that breaks into the Sverdlovsk region from the Arctic has a severe effect on winters. At the same time, the flows coming from Kazakhstan in winter bring warming. In summer, they lead to a significant increase in temperature.

The above also explains the fact that weather anomalies are periodically formed in the Sverdlovsk region:

  • hard frosts or very warm weather in winter;
  • unusually hot or excessively rainy summer days;
  • emergenceearly frosts in the last summer months;
  • periodic return of severe cold in spring.

Isothermal data

The distribution of temperatures on the territory of the Sverdlovsk region is directly dependent on solar radiation, terrain and atmospheric circulation. The study of isotherms of the middle of winter (January) shows that the level of winter temperatures is mainly influenced by air masses coming from the West. They maintain temperatures in the east and northeast of the region in the range from minus 16 to minus 19 degrees Celsius.

Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk region in winter

Midsummer (July) isothermal readings are dependent on solar radiation. The highest temperatures in the Sverdlovsk region in the southeast - about 18 degrees Celsius. In the northern regions - about 17 degrees Celsius.

In the foothills of the Sverdlovsk region, the temperature in the middle of summer is from 10 to 17 degrees Celsius. In winter, especially cold air stagnates in mountain hollows, on average 7-10 degrees lower than the temperature is higher in the mountains.

Precipitation

For the distribution of precipitation in the Sverdlovsk region, the air circulation of masses, relief, and ambient temperature are responsible. The region owes heavy rainfall to the action of cyclones that move from the west. In the middle Urals and in the western foothills, their annual level is 600 mm. For comparison, on the opposite, eastern slopes of the Ural Range, it is 450 mm - 500 mm. In the flat areas and in the southernareas of rainfall - about 400 mm.

Before the rain, southern Urals

The Ural Mountains, as well as the relatively low elevations of the mountain range in the south, act as a barrier, creating a barrier. Most of the precipitation falls on the slopes. The eastern part of the Sverdlovsk region is often affected by dry air masses - the hot air of Central Asia.

Most of the precipitation falls during the warm season. During this period, it is about 70% of their annual volume. In winter, the snow cover is about 50 cm. In the west of the region and in the region of the middle Urals, it is 70 cm on an average annual basis. In the middle mountains of the Sverdlovsk region, the thickness of the snow cover is from 90 cm or more.

In the southeast of the Sverdlovsk region, the snow cover lasts for about 150-160 days. For about 170-180 days snow covers the ground in the north of the region. In mountainous areas, it can persist for up to 190 days.

The climate in the Sverdlovsk region is considered excessively humid. The moisture coefficient throughout its territory is about 1.5. In the foothills and mountainous regions of the region, it is even higher.

Water and climate

The hydrology of the Sverdlovsk region and the climate are closely related. Its main water resources originate in the Ural mountains. These are the rivers flowing from the western slope - Sylva, Chusovaya, Ufa. They are directly related to the Volga river basin. Rivers descending from the eastern side of the Urals - Turan, Pyshma, Iset - rivers of the Ob basin.

Volchikhinsky reservoir (Sverdlovsk Sea)

Mostly aquaticarteries are fed by snow cover. To some extent, groundwater and rains are responsible for their filling.

The rivers of the Sverdlovsk region are widely used for industrial purposes. Practically on each artificial large ponds and backwaters have been created. Rivers abound with artificial dams.

Cities were built around large man-made ponds. All these processes led to climate change due to changes in the state of rivers. So, the water does not freeze at the dams. There is no spring ice drift.

The climate of the Sverdlovsk region is influenced by the created reservoirs designed to provide cities with water. These include:

  • Volchikhinskoye and Verkhnemakarovskoye reservoirs created by the Chusovaya River;
  • Nyazepetrovskoye reservoir formed by the Ural River.

Other water bodies also have a certain impact on the climate of the Sverdlovsk region. So, in the region there are several thousand lakes of various sizes.

Plant world

To characterize the climate of the Sverdlovsk region, the state of the flora is also important. The main we alth of the region is forests (taiga), which occupy almost 60% of the regional area. They are extremely important in terms of water protection and soil protection, which, in turn, is directly related to the level of precipitation and ambient temperature.

Taiga of the Sverdlovsk region

The main composition of forests is pines. They make up more than 40% of all forest areas. On the eastern slope of the Ural Range, pine forests beganformed at the onset of the last post-glacial period and have existed for more than 10,000 years.

It should be noted that due to the damage caused to coniferous forests by logging and the use of wood for other household needs, there has been a significant reduction in forest areas in the region. A significant part of the forest land was transferred to agricultural land. Over the past 300 years, virtually all the forests of the Sverdlovsk region have been cut through. Sometimes two or three times in one area. This led to the fact that in many places, mainly around settlements and cities, coniferous forests in their mass ceased to exist. They were replaced by deciduous ones, consisting of birches, aspens, etc.

Climate and human activity

Currently, the state of the atmosphere and its impact on the weather in the Sverdlovsk region are causing serious concern. At the end of the 20th century, in the nineties, annual emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere amounted to about 2.8 million tons. Despite the fact that their number is decreasing (in 1995 - 1.5 million tons, in 2006 - 1.25 million tons), the concentration remains at a dangerous level.

Smog over Yekaterinburg

The main causes of large harmful emissions into the atmosphere are: imperfection of technological processes; poor equipment of factories and enterprises with air purification installations; low efficiency available.

From year to year, an increase in the volume of harmful substances entering the atmosphere from vehicles is recorded. Number of carsin Yekaterinburg, cities and towns of the region increases every year. Cars burn huge amounts of gasoline and diesel every year. This destroys huge amounts of oxygen. The atmosphere absorbs combustion products, among which the main components are carbon dioxide, lead, benzopyrene, nitrogen oxide, etc.

Specialists say that only in the regional center of Yekaterinburg, about 70% of harmful substances in the air are generated exclusively by motor vehicles.

All this leads to negative anthropogenic impacts not only on the soils and climate of the Middle Urals and the Sverdlovsk region, but also on their biosphere and human he alth.

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