Kuznetsk Alatau. Kuznetsk Alatau - reserve. Map, photo

Kuznetsk Alatau. Kuznetsk Alatau - reserve. Map, photo
Kuznetsk Alatau. Kuznetsk Alatau - reserve. Map, photo
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"Kuznetsk Alatau" is a reserve in which representatives of the flora and fauna of the Kemerovo region are preserved and studied. The nature of these places is unique. Information about the location of the reserve and its inhabitants can be found in this article.

Location

The state reserve is located in the southern part of Central Siberia, on the western slope of the Kuznetsky Alatau ridge, in its central part. The ridge itself occupies about a third of the Kemerovo region. It is a mountain range of medium height, dissected by deep river valleys.

Kuznetsk Alatau

The reserve "Kuznetsky Alatau" is located on the territory of Mezhdurechensky, Novokuznetsky and Tisulsky districts of the Kemerovo region. In the north, its border runs along the southern territory of the Tisulsky district, a little south of the village of Belogorsk. The western border runs along the basins of the upper and middle reaches of the Upper, Lower and Middle Tersi. In the south, the reserve is limited by the upper reaches of the Usa River. In the east, the border coincides with the administrative border of the Kemerovo region and the Republic of Khakassia.

The reserve hasbuffer zone - a "transitional" territory that is not directly part of the reserve, but is under the jurisdiction of its administration and has its own regime and position. It is located on the territory of Tisulsky, Krapivinsky, Novokuznetsky and Mezhdurechensky districts of the Kemerovo region and Ordzhonikidzevsky district of Khakassia, encircles the territory of the reserve along the entire perimeter.

The Celestial Teeth region, Zolotaya Dolina and the territories located on the right bank of the Usa River and to the south, contrary to popular belief, are not and never were part of the Kuznetsky Alatau nature reserve.

History of Creation

The process of arranging and creating the "Kuznetsk Alatau" lasted about ten years. The main argument for opening the reserve was the problem of preserving biodiversity and water resources of the Kemerovo region. In 1989, on December 27, the Decree of the Government of the RSFSR No. 385 was issued on the creation of the reserve. Four years later, in 1993, on September 28, the Small Council of the Kemerovo Regional Council of People's Deputies issued decision No. 213 on the approval of the boundaries of the reserve and the buffer zone in the adjacent territory. In 1995, on August 22, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Khakassia approved the size of the territory of the protected zone of the nature reserve in the amount of 8000 hectares. In 1996, on October 4, Vasilchenko Aleksey Andreevich was appointed director of Kuznetsk Alatau.

Lake Maloye Rybnoe and Mount Bely Golets (1594 m)

Already after the official creation of the reserve, its area was reduced from 455 thousand hectares to 401.8thousand hectares in connection with the forest management work carried out by the Siberian expedition of the RSFSR Glavokhota. The area of ​​the protected zone is 223.5 thousand hectares.

Climatic conditions

The climate of the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau", a photo of which can be seen in this article, was studied very unevenly. At low air temperatures in the cold season, the highest average monthly wind speed is observed. This is especially noticeable during transitional seasons. In autumn and spring, winds blowing at a speed of 10-15 meters per second occur much more often. On the tops of the mountains, the speed of air movement exceeds 25-30 meters per second, in some cases it reaches 60-70 meters per second. Hurricane winds also occur in the warm season, in summer their speed reaches 30-34 meters per second. In most cases, the warmest month is July. In August and June, the air temperature is about the same.

Mammals

58 species of mammals live in the Kuznetsk Alatau, including five species of ungulates, thirteen predators, two lagomorphs, eighteen rodents, nine bats and eleven insectivores. Basically, the fauna of the reserve is represented by taiga forms: red-gray vole, chipmunk, Altai mole, tiny shrew, and so on. There are also elk, fox, brown bear, otter, badger, red and common vole.

Male forest reindeer in the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau"

The living symbol of the "Kuznetsk Alatau" is the Siberian forest reindeer - the rarest animal preserved in the localmountains since ancient times. At least 50% of the population lives in the reserve - about 200 individuals in 2018. The animal is listed in the Red Book of Russia and the Kemerovo region.

Natural Features

The main feature of the Kuznetsk Alatau reserve is the height of the snow cover, which is exceptional for this region of Siberia. On average, on the territory of the nature protection zone, it reaches three to five meters, and in intermountain puffs and depressions - ten to fifteen meters. Therefore, wonderful feeding conditions are formed in the reserve for artiodactyls, especially for reindeer and borer. High snow cover also prevents soil freezing in the landscapes of Kuznetsk Alatau, which ensures successful wintering for otter, mink, muskrat, beaver and mole.

Otter in the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau"

However, the mammalian fauna is constantly at risk of destruction, as illegal hunting flourishes in the most densely populated region of Siberia - Kuzbass. Nomadic species of animals are especially affected: deer, elk, roe deer. Their number in the reserve depends on the seasons - in winter it decreases, and in summer it increases.

Bird fauna

"Kuznetsk Alatau" is a nature reserve with 281 species of birds. Such a rare species of birds as the black stork is widely distributed throughout the protected area. Osprey nesting sites have been found on Lower Tersi. Golden eagles and peregrine falcons are found in the reserve. In the subalpine zone, you can meet Saker Falcon, and in sparse forests - Merlin and Crestedhoney beetle.

The dwarf eagle lives in the lower and middle parts of the rivers. Recently, the hawk owl, the long-tailed owl, the long-eared owl, the scops owl, the pygmy owl and the eagle owl are becoming less and less common. Sedentary typical taiga residents are various types of woodpeckers, jelna, long-tailed tit, black-headed and brown-headed chickadees, nuthatch, kuksha, jay, nutcracker, capercaillie.

Tundra partridge in the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau"

In the vicinity of mountain rivers, a large merganser lives, and along quiet channels and oxbow lakes nesting teal-crackers, pintails, mallards and killer whales. On forest and mountain lakes there are crested duck, hook-nosed scoter and goldeneye. The most numerous representative of the predatory species of birds here is the black kite. In fir and cedar light forests there are thrushes: songbird, krasnobay, pale, Siberian and fieldfare. The field harrier, brown warbler and bluethroat also live in these places.

Fish and amphibian fauna

The reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau", on the map of which there are many rivers and lakes, is a habitat for 14 species of fish and one representative of cyclostomes. Siberian grayling, as well as taimen and lenok are found in mountain rivers. The number of fish that are found in the lakes in the reserve is relatively small. Only in the upper reaches of the Kiya River you can catch burbot, perch, common spike and pike. Spotted sculpin, Siberian char, gudgeon, dace and minnow live here in abundance. A poorly studied and extremely rare species of amphibians, the Siberian lamprey, was found in a tributary of the Srednyaya Tes River.

Taimen in one of the rivers of the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau"

Kuznetsk Alatau is home to five species of amphibians, but only two live in the reserve itself: moor frog and gray toad. Two species of reptiles were found here: the common viper and the viviparous lizard.

Sharp frog in the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau"

Flora

618 vascular higher plants were found on the territory of the Kuznetsky Alatau Reserve, it is assumed that another 943 species of grasses, shrubs and trees grow in these parts. A significant part of the reserve is covered with taiga mountain forests of spruce, fir and Siberian pine, on the eastern slopes are replaced by larch and pine thickets. Vegetation here is represented by species of all altitudinal belts: alpine tundra, alpine meadows, black taiga, steppe and forest-steppe zones. Many rare plants grow in the reserve: lady's slipper, pink rhodiola, safflower-like leuzea and others.

Rhodiola rosea (golden root) in the reserve "Kuznetsk Alatau"

Tourism in "Kuznetsk Alatau"

There are several tourist routes in the reserve, passing mainly through the territory of the protected zone. There are 3 types of routes in total:

  1. Pedestrian ("Mysteries of Mount Nightingale", "To the Black Crow").
  2. Floating (excursions along the rivers Kiya, Usa, Taydon, Upper Ters).
  3. Snowmobiles ("Taskyl-Tour", "Reserved distances", "Wintersafari").

All routes serve recreational, environmental education and educational purposes. Snowmobiles also have a sporting purpose.

Environment Center

In "Kuznetsky Alatau" there is an ecological center located between Myski and Mezhdurechensk. On its territory there is an aviary complex, the Museum of Nature, as well as horse rental. In addition, the Wings Center has been operating here since 2015, which is engaged in the rehabilitation of wild birds.

The aviary complex has several spacious aviaries, which since December 2017 contain:

  1. 2 Siberian red deer (deer).
  2. 2 Siberian roe deer.
  3. A herd of wild boars.
  4. Rabbits.
  5. Common fox.
  6. Moose.
  7. Tele duck squirrel.
  8. American mink.
  9. Badger.
Maral Malysh in the eco-center of the Kuznetsk Alatau Reserve

Most of the animals were wounded and emaciated at the ecocenter.

The Wings Center was created to help the affected birds, the number of which is huge. Previously, they were brought to the ecocenter by local residents. Many birds had wing fractures and leg injuries. After undergoing rehabilitation, the center's staff release the birds into the wild.

The center has a pond for waterfowl, as well as winter and summer enclosures. Currently it contains:

  1. Whooper Swan.
  2. Flock of ducks.
  3. 5 black kites.
  4. Buzzard.
  5. Falcon-peregrine falcons.
  6. 2 Common Kestrels.
  7. Indo.

During the work of the center, several dozen birds were returned to nature.

As for the Museum of Nature, it presents expositions and materials related to the protected system of Russia, in particular "Kuznetsk Alatau". Visitors can take a look at the photo exhibition "The Path of the Kuznetsk Alatau".

Among other things, the environmental center hosts numerous educational excursions, events and holidays. This is a popular holiday destination among residents of the Kemerovo region, which makes a huge contribution to the development of environmental education and recreational activities.

Conclusion

The expanses of the Kuznetsk Alatau mountains are little explored. Mezhdurechensk is a city in the Kemerovo region, where the office of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "State Reserve" Kuznetsk Alatau "" is located. Here, work is being carried out to study the ecosystem of these places, measures are being taken to protect flora and fauna from the harmful effects of human economic activity, and environmental education is being carried out. This difficult task is necessary to preserve native nature in its original form.

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