Prevention is the prevention of problems. Fundamentals, methods, measures and activities for prevention

Prevention is the prevention of problems. Fundamentals, methods, measures and activities for prevention
Prevention is the prevention of problems. Fundamentals, methods, measures and activities for prevention
Anonim

The modern Russian language is rich in various words, concepts and terms. In this article, I would like to talk about what prevention is: what types of it exist, what measures and methods are there.

About the concept

prevention is

First of all, of course, you need to decide on the most important concept that will be used in this article. So, prevention is a certain complex of various kinds of measures that are aimed at preventing a problem or phenomenon even before they occur, or it is the prevention of various kinds of risk factors regarding the same issue.

About levels

So, we figured out that prevention is a set of measures aimed at overcoming a problem that has not yet arisen or is in its infancy. However, considering this topic, it is worth saying that there are also various levels of it.

  1. State. In this case, prevention measures are prescribed at the highest levels of government, these are some legislative measures aimed at improving the he alth or well-being (depending on the type) of the country's inhabitants.
  2. Public (or labor collective) - lower level. Preventive measures target a specific group of people.
  3. Family level. Preventive measures for members of the same family.
  4. Individual, or personal. In this case, prevention concerns a single person.

Directions

basics of prevention

It is also worth mentioning that prevention activities can be carried out in various directions. So, there are several of them:

  1. Behavioral direction. As an example: prevention of deviant behavior, offenses, etc.
  2. Sanitary and hygienic. This is the field of hygiene as well as medicine.
  3. Functional biological (e.g. fire safety).
  4. He althcare.

According to these four directions, various preventive measures are being taken.

Types of prevention

So, what are the types of prevention? According to one classification, there are two of them:

  1. Personal, i.e. individual, aimed at one individual person.
  2. Public, when preventive measures apply to a group of people, society or all residents of one country.

Another grouping of types of preventive measures may occur depending on the scope of their action.

  1. Medical prevention.
  2. Social.
  3. Fire.
  4. Criminal, etc.

There can be a huge number of such subspecies, considerthey are needed separately, and not together in one tandem.

Tasks

prevention methods

So, let's consider further the basics of prevention. It is worth paying attention to the tasks that this type of preventive work sets for itself.

  1. Carrying out various complexes and preventive measures.
  2. Using innovative forms in various fields to improve preventive measures.
  3. Formation of understanding among people of the need for periodic preventive measures on a particular issue (be it medicine, the fire fighting industry or the social sphere of life).

Principles

Having understood that prevention is a complex of preventive measures, it is worth paying attention to the principles that are used in the creation of prevention programs at various levels.

  1. The principle of consistency. Drawing up prevention programs based on periodic analysis of the problem.
  2. The principle of strategic integrity. A unified strategy for preventive activities on a particular issue.
  3. The principle of multidimensionality. The combination in the prevention of the personal aspect, behavioral, etc.
  4. The principle of situationality. Conformity of preventive measures to real requirements.
  5. The principle of solidarity. Assistance and assistance in carrying out prevention between organizations of various levels.
  6. The principle of legitimacy. Based on the adoption of preventive measures by people for whom these methods are intended.
  7. Principle of maximumdifferentiation and polymodality. The use of several methods of prevention in parallel, their relationship, flexibility, etc.
preventive measures

About medical prevention

It is worth mentioning that, probably, the most common at the state level in our country is medical prevention. In this field of knowledge, there are three types of them:

  1. Primary prevention. This is a system of measures aimed at identifying the causes of the disease and eliminating them. The main goal of these methods is to activate the body's forces to resist the effects of negative factors.
  2. Secondary. This is already a set of measures of a defensive nature: the detection and prevention of relapses, the progression of the pathological process, etc.
  3. Tertiary. This is an element of secondary prevention, which is not always singled out as a separate item. This may be the rehabilitation of patients, the disabled, who have lost the opportunity to a full life.

About principles

As far as levels of prevention are concerned, the following very important principles are inherent in them:

  1. Continuity.
  2. Differentiated character.
  3. Mass character.
  4. Complexity of preventive measures.
  5. And, of course, science.

It is worth saying that medical prevention measures can be different, from sanitary and hygienic procedures (prevention of worms or poisoning) to vaccination (prevention of major diseases that can be avoided by introducinga small amount of the virus into the human body to familiarize the body with it and develop a protective mechanism in case of an epidemic).

medical prevention

Fire prevention

There is also the concept of "fire prevention". This is a complex of various measures aimed at preventing fire situations. It is worth saying that this type of preventive measures is used not only by employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, they are needed in the construction of all buildings of various types (both residential and non-residential premises), planning and development of both urban and rural areas. Fire prevention measures can be as follows:

  1. Not only control, but also the development and implementation of fire safety rules.
  2. Maintaining the layout and design of objects, taking into account their fire hazard.
  3. Maintenance and improvement of the fire system.
  4. Regular surveys by specialists of various enterprises regarding compliance with fire safety rules and the readiness of fire systems for a quick response.
  5. Promotion of fire-technical knowledge among people at enterprises, schools, etc.
social prevention

About social prevention

It is worth mentioning that there is also another type - social prevention. This is a certain system of measures that are aimed at preventing, localizing or eliminating specific negative manifestations in society. There are special measures of this typepreventive actions. They are subdivided into:

  • general (intended for a large number of people: improving working conditions, preventing deviant behavior among adolescents, etc.);
  • special (these measures are aimed at a special set of people who are at risk in this issue; for example, difficult teenagers in crime prevention);
  • individual measures (work is aimed at individuals who are in the same risk group as in the paragraph above).

At the same time, prevention methods are used at various levels: personal, family, social, state.

Highlights

preventive measures

Social prevention also deserves special attention from the point of view of its special moments. Why is it needed?

  1. In society, there are a huge number of different stressful situations every day. If they are not resolved, they accumulate and grow into a huge problem. Preventive measures are capable of killing the developing "infection" in the bud and save society from analyzing the consequences of this condition.
  2. Still, the main goal is not to respond to an emerging problem, but to prevent it altogether. This requires a deep analysis of social relations in a certain period of time and according to a certain situation in the country (crisis, martial law, etc.).
  3. Prevention methods are designed to teach people new skills, give special knowledge to achieve their own goals or maintain he alth.
  4. Prevention servicesare called upon to find the best ways both to prevent problems and to solve them.

Social prevention at the state level

It is important to carry out preventive measures correctly at every level. However, state social prevention deserves special attention, which is carried out thanks to various measures: economic, socio-political, socio-cultural, legal. Measures that are being actively applied:

  1. Explanatory work, according to this issue, at enterprises of various levels.
  2. Preventive check (of knowledge, tools if necessary).
  3. Implementation of preventive raids and operations.
  4. Social patronage - support for people in need of help.

Popular topic