Teenage suicide: causes and methods of prevention

Teenage suicide: causes and methods of prevention
Teenage suicide: causes and methods of prevention
Anonim

The statistics of teenage suicide in Russia is disappointing. Our country ranks fourth in the world in this indicator. The first three are shared by India, China and America. For example, in 2013, according to statistics, 20 out of 100,000 people died voluntarily. Child and adolescent suicides have an uneven prevalence. In the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, for example, the statistics of teenage suicides is 255 per 100,000 population, while in Chechnya the figure is 2.3 per the same number.

teenage suicide

For two months in Moscow, on average, about 180-240 attempts of teenage suicide are registered. On the day, medical workers receive 3-4 calls related to the suicide of minors.

Reasons for teenage suicide

Unresolved conflicts at home, financial problems, the loss of a loved one, and alcohol or drug abuse - these are a number of reasons commonly associated with adults who decide to commit suicide. Adolescence is a little different. Often it's unrequitedlove or misunderstanding from loved ones. 75% of teen suicides have single-parent families, often this number includes orphans.

teen suicide

However, alcoholism and drug addiction can also be causes of teenage suicide. In a state of withdrawal, or withdrawal, when severe physical pain and depression are felt, the already thought out plan for leaving life is usually embodied. Psychotherapists say that the idea of ​​suicide very rarely arises spontaneously. Most often, it happens that a person thinks about ways to commit suicide for a long time.

Suicide in adolescence has its factors. Problems with studies, in communicating with peers, the detachment of parents - all this day after day worsens the mental state of children. Stress adds up. Teenagers begin to feel that if the present and the past do not bring any joy, then their future will develop in the same way.

Indirect causes

Factors such as the political situation and the economic crisis in the country, oddly enough, also have an impact on the state of adolescents. Due to the increase in the level of anxiety of parents, children also begin to experience psycho-emotional difficulties, to some extent losing the support of adults who are powerless in the face of circumstances. Thus, the mental state of adults also has an impact on teenage suicide. Statistics show that suicidal tendencies also depend on gender. Among girls, this figure is 8 people per 100 thousand of the population, among boys - 33human.

Which teenagers are suicidal

The following risk factors should be considered, especially if the teenager is at risk of several of them:

  1. Suicide in family history. If one of the relatives of a teenager ended his life of his own free will, this increases the overall risk of suicide among other family members.
  2. Addiction to alcohol. Alcoholism is another factor that provokes teenage suicide. Russia ranks fifth in the world in terms of alcohol consumption, but these data are considered underestimated due to shadow turnover. This dependence provokes chemical changes in the central nervous system. As a result of these disorders, adolescents, like adults, develop a depressive state, and the level of anxiety increases significantly.
  3. Drug addiction. Drugs, especially their use together with alcohol, are a deadly factor. A person loses control over himself, ceases to be aware of his motives and needs. Increasing depression can turn into a psychotic state.
  4. An unfinished attempt to die in the past. About a third of teens who have attempted suicide in the past go on to complete suicide.
  5. The presence of mental illness, as well as neurotic tendencies.
  6. Hints of suicide.
child and adolescent suicides

Loss and suicide

Serious loss can lead to both depression and suicide. The teenage character is characterized by maximalism: for example, love can seem to be the last "little adult"in his life. This needs to be understood, as well as taken seriously as a teenager's personality. Other losses may be associated with the loss of physical he alth, a loved one. In all cases, the teenager is seized not only by depression, but also by anger and anger.

Set of conditions

It should be noted that very rarely only one of the listed factors pushes an unformed individual to commit suicide. Adolescence is a transitional age, and it must be remembered that everything is perceived especially sharply in it. While being at risk does not always mean committing suicide, relatives, teachers, and friends need to be very careful about their presence. Teenage suicide is a situation that requires external intervention. Children need a person who is able to change the situation and help them, having heard the cry of the soul.

Signs that may indicate a possible suicide

  1. Eating disorders: complete lack of appetite or, conversely, uncontrolled gluttony.
  2. Disregarding one's own appearance: for example, untidiness in clothes for several days.
  3. Complaints about a physical condition: migraine or abdominal pain.
  4. Lack of enjoyment from activities that used to bring joy. Feeling bored or apathetic.
  5. Incessant feeling of guilt, total loneliness.
  6. Deterioration of concentration.
  7. Short temper, frequent angry reactions for minor reasons.

Diagnosis of adolescencesuicide

The vast majority of teenagers somehow let the environment know about their plans. The very act of suicide is the final stage, when the cup of patience is already full. This is preceded by a certain period of time when a teenager, under pressure of circumstances, contemplates suicide, directly or indirectly making it clear to parents and others around.

teenage suicide

Preventive measures

Teenagers who are suicidal for one or more reasons need long-term psychotherapeutic help. Of particular importance in preventing the death of minors of their own free will is timely diagnosis by others. Neglecting alarm signals can be fatal for a teenager.

It is also very important to analyze those factors that will help keep a person from a terrible step. The first condition is the absence of mental disorders. Other factors are as follows:

  1. Atmosphere of mutual help and understanding in the family.
  2. Adolescent's cultural values ​​that make committing suicide unacceptable.
  3. Strengthening the weaknesses of character. Such an Achilles' heel can be, for example, excessive sensitivity and vulnerability. If an adolescent has a vulnerability in any area, directed psychotherapy for that trait is needed.

Depression and suicide

The problem of teen suicide is closely related to depression. Suicidality has many of the characteristics of the classicaldepressive state. The latter does not necessarily mean that the person is on the verge of suicide. But the pre-suicidal state is characterized by depression. Those activities that previously brought pleasure to a teenager cease to please him. Life loses its colors and becomes tasteless. In other words, the “pleasure button” breaks. Other signals that characterize depression are motor retardation, sleep disturbances, feelings of worthlessness, constant guilt, even sin.

statistics of teenage suicide in Russia

A person can either be silent for a long time, or, conversely, suddenly become talkative. His speech consists of complaints, requests for help.

Teen suicide prevention

Suicide is a person's reaction to those circumstances in which life has become impossible for him. The reasons for suicide are always different, and most often a single individual has several of them. But such an act is always a consequence of the fact that the conditions in which a person lived became more and more subjectively unbearable for him. Teenagers always make it known: more than 70% of them somehow communicate their intentions to other people. These can be seemingly completely ridiculous allusions, and quite obvious statements.

Adolescent suicide is largely prevented by a strategy similar to adult psychotherapy. Behavior modification involves the application of various approaches. Firstly, it is work to increase self-esteem, help in developing an adequate attitude towards oneself.It is necessary to teach a teenager to cope with stress, to find a new motivation for life, achievements, and also to replace the so-called significant others. In other words, it is necessary, if possible, to fill those voids that push a person to suicide. An adolescent psychologist is sometimes the specialist in whom there is also a real need. Therefore, among other things, do not neglect the possibility of providing professional support.

teenage suicide problem

Communicating with a teenager

Sometimes relatives of a potential suicidal person may exhibit behavior that only aggravates the condition of a teenager. And they can do it with the best of intentions. For example, unwillingness to discuss this problem, or resorting to dogmas and prohibitions that exist in this regard in religion. This only increases the feeling of guilt and misunderstanding.

It must be taken into account that those who contemplate suicide, whether teenagers or adults, are in a very difficult emotional state. Guilt, sadness, anger, aggression, fear - this whole vicious emotional tangle needs at least to be paid attention to. But often the family and the environment focus their attention on these depressive manifestations, they are outraged by the way the teenager behaves and says. Therefore, he does not receive support even from those who, it would seem, should come to the rescue first.

Teen suicide: steps to prevent

  1. It is necessary to accept the very fact that a teenager can make such a decision. Sometimes peopleafraid to exaggerate the risk of suicide. But even if they make such a mistake, it will be nothing compared to the lost life of a teenager. Therefore, it is necessary to accept him as a person, to admit the very possibility that this maturing person is, in principle, capable of committing such an act. It should not be assumed that if someone decides to commit suicide, no one can stop him. The temptation to think this way is very great. But every day, hundreds of people around the world die of their own free will, although they could have been stopped.
  2. You need to establish a warm and trusting relationship with your child. It is impossible to solve completely all the problems that push a person to suicide. But by accepting it as it is, you can significantly reduce the likelihood of a terrible act. No need to try to teach the life of a "little adult" and moralize. Much more he needs love, care and attention, expressed both verbally and in the form of hugs, touches, smiles. Caring is what will help the anxious and desperate individual feel needed again.
  3. A teenager needs to be heard. Often he wants to express his feelings, all the emotional pain that has accumulated in him. By his behavior, he demonstrates what he would like to say out loud: “I no longer have anything of value left - something for which you can still live.” Dealing with a potential suicide, especially a teenager, can be difficult. But it must be remembered that it is difficult precisely because of this tendency, because a teenager can no longer concentrate on anything other than his spiritualpain.
  4. Search for the root causes of a possible suicide. It is necessary not only to support and care for a teenager, but also to notice signs of suicidal behavior. If the speech contains threats of suicide, if he is lonely and isolated from society, constantly feels unhappy, all these can be serious signs of a desire to leave this world.
teenage suicide russia

Prevention of suicide among adolescents requires, first of all, the participation of adults, their ability to listen to the teenager and help him. Help should not consist in teaching, but in the acceptance of a teenager, support, training in the search for alternatives. Paying attention to the signals that are characteristic of his behavior will help save human life.

Popular topic