Table of contents:
- Cambodia - where is this?
- What do we know about her?
- History of the State
- Natural Features
- Weather and climate
- Major cities in Cambodia
- Standard of living
- Land of smiles
Cambodia is a state located in the south of the Indochinese Peninsula, in Southeast Asia. It has been very popular with tourists lately. In fact, this is a real tropical paradise that offers guests a high level of service. However, what do we know about this country?
Cambodia - where is this?
The state borders on Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. The total length of the state border of Cambodia is 2,572 km. In the southwest, the state is washed by the Gulf of Thailand, which in turn is part of the South China Sea. The waters of the bay also wash several islands belonging to Cambodia. The largest is Kong, with an area of 100 square kilometers. The state is independent, but it was not always so.
What do we know about her?
Earlier, Cambodia was called Kampuchea (from Sanskrit Kambujadesa). The name, according to legend, came from the name of the founder of the former royal dynasty of Kambu.
The capital is Phnom Penh, one of the largest cities in the state. The total area of the country is 181,000 square kilometers.The population is more than 16 million people. The official language is Khmer, which is one of the largest Austroasiatic languages.
The form of government is a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the king, who is a symbol of national unity, but, in fact, does not have special power, since all political issues are decided by parliament.
History of the State
The power that arose on the territory of modern Cambodia at the beginning of our era was much larger. Little is known about the Khmer state. You can get acquainted in detail only with those events that took place starting from the middle of the 19th century. It is known that in 1863 Cambodia was under the rule of France, and from 1942 to 1945 it was occupied by Japan. However, it gained independence in 1953.
But it was after gaining independence that the peaceful life of the country's inhabitants ended for a long time. Civil war, coup d'état and even genocide - all this survived the state. Today, however, Cambodia is a peaceful country where you can safely fly on vacation. Time in Cambodia, as tourists say, flows in a completely different way.
Cambodians are mostly Khmers. In 2017, the country's population was just over 16 million. Approximately 10% of the population are:
- Chinese (they are mainly engaged in trade);
- chamy (descendants of the state that once existed on the territory of modern Vietnam);
- Khmer-ly (tribes living in the highlands);
Note that each of these minorities has its own differences. For example, the Vietnamese profess another direction of Buddhism - Mahayana. The Chams are predominantly engaged in weaving, while the Khmer Ly are engaged in growing crops.
There are slightly more women in the country than men. The literacy rate as of 2010 is 73%. The average life expectancy among men is 62 years, among women - 64. Outwardly, the Khmers are quite attractive. Men are mostly short and muscular, women are distinguished by curvaceous figures and soft smiles. Many have white skin.
Cambodia's population density is uneven. Most of it is concentrated in the capital, in the central region of the country and in the Mekong Delta region. It is noteworthy that one half of the population lives in poverty, while the other is prosperous. Middle-income Cambodians are hard to find. At present, the issue of education is acute. On the one hand, children study at school for 12 years, that is, they must receive it at the proper level. However, due to the difficult financial situation, many miss classes, as they are forced to earn extra money.
More than 95% of the population practice Buddhism, that is, it is the main religion in the country. The most widespread doctrine is Theravada - one of the most "classical" directions of Buddhism. It is based on tolerance. It is also interesting in that itimplies belief in a higher being. That is, it is a religion without a god. According to the Theravada precepts, each individual person is fully responsible only for his misdeeds and deeds. Monks who profess Buddhism live apart: they are not allowed to participate in entertainment establishments. They are required to observe the 10 precepts of the Buddha and another 227 rules. They eat twice a day.
At the same time, there are also Christians (they profess Catholicism) and Muslims in the country. The latter number about 30,000, most of them live in the province of Kampong Cham. The Chinese in Cambodia practice Confucianism and Taoism.
Khmer is spoken by 95% of the population. It is the only state Previously, French served as a second language, because Cambodia was under the protectorate of France for a long time. This beautiful language is remembered by many older residents of the country.
However, recently his popularity has declined significantly. Young people do not teach it, and members of the government apply it very rarely. Chinese and English are popular. The languages of the country's national minorities are also widespread: Lao, Thai, Vietnamese, dialects of Chinese. The Highland Khmers speak their own language.
70% of the territory is plains surrounded by mountains. Approximately 3/4 of the country is occupied by tropical rainforests. Among the valuable species are sal, rosewood, red, sandalwood. The coast is dominated by mangrove forests. Where they once weredestroyed by fires, bamboo and wild banana grow.
In the forests you can meet an elephant (although today they are mostly domesticated), a buffalo, a wild cat, a bear, a monkey. Reptiles abound. There are many poisonous snakes, there are also crocodiles.
Cambodia is crossed by the Mekong, the largest river on the peninsula, which is the longest in the country. It flows into the South China Sea. The largest lake is Tonle Sap.
Weather and climate
The climate is hot and mostly humid, although the weather in Cambodia is influenced by the monsoons. In fact, four climatic seasons can be distinguished:
- November-February - dry and cool climate;
- March-May - dry, hot;
- June-August - hot and humid season;
- September-part of November - wet and cold season.
Tourists should visit the country from November to February. During this period, the average air temperature exceeds +26 degrees, there is little rain. The weather is just perfect, the sea is calm and calm. Some are especially fond of the summer rainy season, as an abundance of various fruits appear on the market, and it is almost impossible to meet tourists.
Major cities in Cambodia
Phnom Penh is the capital of the country, so most tourists start their acquaintance with it from here. It resembles a beautiful but provincial town. There is not even public transport here, but many locals travel by mopeds, motorcycles and cars. Population - 2,234,566 people
Among local attractions - Royalpalace, several museums. Many shops, restaurants, hotels, as well as travel agencies that offer to get acquainted with the sights of Cambodia. It is noteworthy that plane tickets to Phnom Penh are among the most expensive in Asia.
The second largest city in Cambodia is Battambang. Despite the abundance of tourists, it has a calm provincial atmosphere. Here you can see the real life of Cambodians, not embellished with tourist splendor. Most often on the streets you can meet children and teenagers. This is because due to poor he alth, many residents of the city die before they even reach the age of 40. There are very few older people here. Some areas of the city look abandoned, which is an echo of the troubled past. Population - 250,000 people
Siem Reap today is the third largest city in Cambodia. Population - 171 800 people. It is especially popular with tourists due to its access to the temples of the Angkor Archaeological Park. It was founded in 802, but until the discovery by the French, Angkor was a simple village. However, thanks to the interest in these ancient buildings, Siem Reap began to develop rapidly.
Standard of living
The standard of living in Cambodia is not high enough. 80% of the country's inhabitants are engaged in agricultural activities. About 70% of Cambodia's population is educated. However, the standard of living here is still quite low. Let's turn to the testimonials of people who live in Cambodia.
First of all, you should stop at supermarkets, as foodalways interested in the person in the first place. Many complain that the assortment in stores is small, although the prices do not bite. Therefore, most people buy the necessary products in markets that are not distinguished by beauty: flies, crowds, intestines and stale meat on the shelves can turn you into a vegetarian.
In big cities, many local Cambodians speak English. In fact, only those who speak it well work in the tourism sector and have a stable financial income, since it is difficult to work in the country, and wages are very low. The average salary is $200. By the way, the money of Cambodia is called riels. The dollar to riel exchange rate today is 1:4000. However, tourists claim that the local currency is on an equal footing with dollars.
He alth is very poor. So, those who visited Cambodia complain about the lack of qualified doctors. Hospitals are sparsely equipped, especially compared to the Thai hospitals, in which the Americans have invested a lot of money. Serious medical assistance is not to be expected. We althy Cambodians turn to private clinics when needed, but people with lower incomes cannot afford such a luxury. In some villages, the care of people's he alth lies on the shoulders of healers and paramedics.
Problems with communication are also present. A few years ago, about 10,000 people in the country used the Internet. However, tourists complain about the poor quality of the connection, which is constantly interrupted.
Education here is inexpensive by our standards, but not everyone canafford it. The state allocates only 1% of the total budget of the country to the needs of educational institutions. As a result, teachers receive very modest salaries and conditions in schools are not the best. In universities, the situation is just as sad. Teachers due to low pay do not seek to improve their knowledge. In universities, only 10% of teachers have a doctoral degree. Students receiving state-funded places do not even think about any cash payments - the state has no money.
As a result, the following situation is observed: there is a high risk of unemployment and an equally high level of insufficiently qualified specialists.
Land of smiles
The people of Cambodia are incredibly kind and smiling people, according to numerous tourists. And this is taking into account the fact that Cambodia is one of the poorest in Asia. But this does not affect its inhabitants in any way. They are always in a good mood, never refuse to help. True, they are not very clean and can live quietly near garbage dumps. However, this does not affect their good disposition in any way. Many tourists call Cambodia one of the best countries to live in because of its people.
The main thing is to get used to the local cuisine, which seems quite exotic to tourists. On sale you can find fried locusts, spiders and other insects. However, local restaurants (particularly in Sihanoukville) prepare tasty and inexpensive dishes familiar to many - rice, spaghetti, pizza, chicken fillet. What's more, the local waiters are often so welcomingthat treat visitors while they are waiting for their order.
There is no daylight saving time here. Time in Cambodia is 4 hours ahead of Moscow. It is noteworthy that residents of Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, the western region of Indonesia, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Kemerovo Region, and the western part of Mongolia live at this time.
So, today we discussed the exotic country of Cambodia. Where is it, what is its uniqueness and what is the standard of living becomes clear from our article. Tourists claim that only two days are enough to get acquainted with a large city, since most of them are unremarkable. But tourists especially praise the resort of Sihanoukville and advise you to definitely relax there by the sea. The heat-loving guests of the city of the city are always delighted with the high air temperature, which even in the cold season does not fall below 27% degrees.