Table of contents:
- Cedar pines
- How many years Siberian cedar has been growing
- Features of fruiting
- Factors of cedar fruiting
- Siberian cedar cones
- Fructification of Korean cedar and cedarelfin
- Fructification of cultivated plantings
- Interesting facts
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
Cedar forests from time immemorial attracted the attention of researchers and businessmen as a land rich in living creatures and fruits. The first Russian settlements in Siberia were built near the cedar forests scattered along the banks of the rivers, as the settlers quickly penetrated and recognized the value of these trees. The royal decree of 1683 contained clauses on the special protection of cedar forests, where sable fishing was carried out. At present, they continue to be of great importance for the natural economy of the country and represent the most complex and productive ecosystems. As part of the article, we will consider how much the cedar grows before fruiting, and also touch on the features of this period.
In Russia, real cedars can be found extremely rarely, as they are very heat-loving plants and are common in subtropical latitudes. Trees that most people mistake for cedars are actually cedar pines, which are one family with great relatives. In nature, they have quite a few varieties, but only three species grow on Russian territory: Korean cedar, dwarf pine and Siberian cedar. The latter is the main nut breed and has the widest distribution. Its range covers areas with a variety of climatic conditions: Eastern and Western Siberia, the middle and northern Urals, regions of the European part of Russia.
Siberian cedar pine is a majestic representative of coniferous trees, which has a wide variety of decorative forms. This tree belongs to the shade-tolerant species and tolerates the severity of low temperatures well. It is among the centenarians (400-500 years) and is slowly growing. How long it takes a cedar to grow up is clearly demonstrated by the first fruits that appear under favorable conditions only for 40-70 years of life. But the breeders managed to achieve results and reduce the time to the first fruiting.
How many years Siberian cedar has been growing
Mature cedar pines, like trees of the first magnitude, are distinguished by a dense luxurious crown with impressive large branches. Their height can reach up to 45 meters, and the thickness of the trunk in diameter - up to 2 meters. Cedars come to maturity very slowly. The first whorls of their branches occur only at the age of 6-7, at which the height of the tree barely reaches 30 centimeters. Starting from the age of 20, its growth is activated, annual growth increases and reaches 35 centimeters per year.
It will depend on the lighting conditions and a number of other factors how much the cedar grows and how long to wait for its fruits. In the forest for the first 70-100 years, he stays under a canopydominant deciduous trees (often birch and aspen), so heavy shading is the reason for its late maturation. At the same time, in open spaces, the period of fruitfulness of cedar can begin as early as 20-40 years.
Features of fruiting
Scientists have studied the characteristics of the fruiting of the Siberian pine. Her male inflorescences begin to form on branches in the middle part of the crown, and female ones on large upper branches. When ripe, the pollen is carried by the wind to the female cone, which by autumn reaches the size of a hazelnut and remains unfertilized until the next year. Intensive development of the cone occurs after fertilization in June of the second year. Its color begins to change from purple to dark brown, which indicates the stage of seed ripening, which ends by early September. The entire cycle of a cedar cone (how long it grows until it is fully ripe) takes 18 months.
It is interesting to note that female cones change their color repeatedly over the entire period of development. During flowering, they look pinkish, then turn into raspberry, cones winter already with a cream color. During the period of active growth, they show rich purple tones, and at the final stage, when the seeds ripen, the color is transformed into a light and dark brown hue.
Factors of cedar fruiting
How much the cedar grows to the first cone depends on many conditions. The primary role in this matter will be played by factors of an internal order: the specifics of the growth and development of the tree itself, itsearly years of life. Further, nutrition, the environment, climatic soil factors, the position in the canopy of trees, and the density of the forest stand (if the cedar is in the forest) are of no small importance. Together, these reasons make the final verdict on the time of the first fruits of the tree and its subsequent yield.
Thus, being in natural conditions, the cedar pine during its maturation is in a state of continuous struggle and competition with other trees. As a result, its fruitfulness comes later than that of its counterparts on the site.
Siberian cedar cones
Being a fruit tree, cedar is classified as a late-ripening plant, by November its ripe cones begin to fall off. Their sizes are quite large and can reach a length of up to 15 centimeters. A mature cone has a dry and non-resinous surface of woody scales that are easily separated from each other. Siberian cedar seeds have a round-elongated shape and a relatively small size (in mass no more than 230-250 mg).
The size of the cones is closely related to the age of the cedar and the yield of cones on it. In most trees, the first decades of fruiting are characterized by a small number of cones, but they are quite large. The number and size of fruits give an idea of how much the cedar grows, about the period of its maturity. At a venerable age, by the time of sunset, the fruitfulness of the tree decreases, its cones begin to shrink.
Fructification of Korean cedar and cedarelfin
Korean cedar is recognized as a symbol of the vegetation of the Primorsky Territory and is of great value for the national economy of the region. Its fruiting is not much different from the Siberian relative. In natural nature, it begins at the age of 50-60, with cultural cultivation much earlier. Ripened cones are quite large, on average their length is 17 centimeters, and the size of the seeds reaches 2 centimeters.
Pine elfin is a branched coniferous shrub with widely spread branches, which is common in the north-eastern territories of Russia. Its fruiting begins at the age of 20-30 and continues until the very death, which occurs at 200-250 years. Pine dwarf cones are smaller than Siberian cedar cones; on average, their length is only 4 centimeters. Ripe, they remain on the branches and partially fall off in winter. The seeds are oval-irregular in shape and can be up to 0.8 cm long. Pine elfin is completely undemanding to the soil environment and grows in the most severe and difficult conditions.
Fructification of cultivated plantings
Growing cedar pine in the park or on the site significantly accelerates the onset of fruiting time. Planting and caring for a tree is of great importance. It is from the conditions created that it will depend on how many years the cedar grows to cones. As a rule, "domesticated" plantings are not long in coming, the first fruits appear in 15-20 years.
It is worth noting that the process of fruitingcan be accelerated even more. A stalk taken from a mature tree with a good yield is grafted onto a cedar pine. In this case, the cones will appear within 5-7 years after planting the seedling.
- Scientists have calculated that the annual harvest of pine nuts from the taiga is able to satisfy the global demand of the vegetable oil market.
- In Russia to this day, cedar fishing is practiced - cones, which is considered an unsafe occupation. With the help of a large wooden mallet, which is beaten on a tree, cones are extracted.
- In the harvest year of dwarf dwarf pine, one hectare can harvest 2 centners of nuts.
- Nuts left in the cone have the longest shelf life. While in it, the seeds can be stored for up to 5 years.
- The seed of the Korean cedar is twice the size of the Siberian cedar and is just as heavy because of its higher oil content.
- How much the cedar grows, so much it does not obey the general biological rhythms. Depending on environmental conditions, the tree regulates all its processes independently, adapting them to external conditions.
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