Power of the people - democracy: a type of political structure of the state

Power of the people - democracy: a type of political structure of the state
Power of the people - democracy: a type of political structure of the state
Anonim

One of the most common in the modern world is a political model in which the people are the bearer of power in the state. And such a model can be implemented in several ways.

Power to the people

If we talk about the political regime, where democracy is most clearly expressed, then it makes sense to recall democracy. It is in it that the principle of participation of citizens of the state in the fate of the country and its structure is implemented.

People power

Paying attention to the definition of such a state structure, we can come to the following thesis: democracy is a political regime in which the people are recognized as the only legitimate source of power in the country. Citizens can exercise control without intermediaries (direct democracy), or by choosing representatives who will pursue the interests of the country's population (representative democracy). In any case, the state authorities necessary for the competent management of the country's resources are being formed.

In principle, the main goal of democracy is to ensure the freedom of citizens and the implementation of a strategy based on their interests. In thatcase, it makes sense to recall the position of Abraham Lincoln, who believed that democracy is the management of the name of the people, the forces of the people and for the people.

Where the power of the people was first exercised

This kind of state system, like democracy, was formed in ancient Greece. It was in this country that much attention was paid to the issue of the power of citizens and considered various facets of such a model.

government departments

But this idea was partially implemented by the Greeks, since both foreigners and slaves could not be classified as citizens. Later, in various medieval states, a similar electoral model was applied, in which not everyone was endowed with equal rights. In other words, the power of the people was present, only not everyone had the honor of being numbered among the people.

Given these features, researchers have defined this type of state system as a slave-owning democracy.

Features of modern democracy

As for the current society, the principles of democracy are implemented in it by various government bodies, which are the most suitable concept for countries with market economies (Western European states, the USA).

democracy rule of the people

This has led to the formation of the following features of modern democracy:

  • state power is divided into three key segments: legislative, executive and judicial;
  • there is electivity of the authorities;
  • minority obeys majority;
  • minority rights are protected;
  • political freedoms and rights realized.

Direct democracy

In order to understand what a state looks like where the direct power of the people is implemented, you need to pay attention to the model of direct democracy.

power belongs to the people

The main difference between such a state system is the absence of intermediaries between the moment of formation of the will of the people and its practical implementation. In modern society, such a vision of the state is realized through elections, during which it became possible to express the will of the people as to who will represent the interests of citizens in public authorities.

Some countries act on the basis of legislation that provides for the direct participation of the people in the process of lawmaking. We are talking about various initiative decisions and referendums.

A referendum should be understood as an expression of the power of the people through direct voting on key state issues. Moreover, this can be either a poll necessary to correct the government's decision, or the process of re-election of power or blocking a specific law.

As for the initiative, in this case we are talking about the procedure necessary in order to formally invite citizens or legislators to consider an issue. As a rule, for its implementation, the collection of the required number of signatures is used, allowing to startholding a referendum.

If we talk about alternative forms through which democracy is manifested, the power of the people and the freedom of citizens as such, it is worth mentioning processions, rallies, demonstrations and appeals to government officials, regardless of their level. The media are often used as a tool for implementing democracy.

Representative democracy

With this form of government there is no direct expression of the will of the people. In such countries, the institution of intermediaries is used, and such a system is called delegated democracy.

expression of the power of the people

According to the results of the elections, political leaders and deputies receive the so-called mandate of trust from the people. It is they who subsequently become the instrument by which the power of the people is realized. Such actions take the form of decisions and specific bills, which are also developed by political structures.

Such relations between the people themselves and their representatives are based on the concept of responsibility and authority of the authorities to citizens.

Advantages and disadvantages of different models

As you can see, in a democracy, although power belongs to the people, it can be realized in a variety of ways, including through the formation of a layer of intermediaries.

In order to evaluate each model, it is worth considering its possible disadvantages and advantages. So, what are the disadvantages of direct democracy:

  • according to opponents of this speciesdemocracies, the people are often emotionally unbalanced and do not have sufficient competence to make key political and economic decisions;
  • the process of making agreed decisions with a sufficiently large number of participants is complex;
  • quick decision-making is also hindered by a wide range of opinions;
  • another argument against the direct power of the people is the possibility of manipulation of civil opinion by competent and not entirely conscientious leaders.

The following factors are cited as obvious advantages of direct democracy:

with this form of government, the highest expression of the power of the people are civil initiatives and referendums, which helps prevent distortion of the will of the country's inhabitants;

direct power of the people

such a system greatly expands the political horizons of citizens

As for the cons of representative democracy, they look like this:

  • ordinary deputies suspended from making key decisions;
  • deputies are moving away from the people who elected them, which is expressed in a fairly high level of bureaucracy;
  • Powerful pressure groups can prioritize important decision making;
  • Democratic control from below is noticeably weakening.

But representative democracy also has significant advantages that definitely deserve attention:

power people state
  • deputies with highlevel of political qualifications, replace illiterate representatives of the people, which increases the likelihood of the formation and implementation of the most relevant state development strategy;
  • it becomes possible to achieve a balance of interests during decision-making.

The purpose of the constitution of a democratic state

When talking about such concepts as "power", "people", "state" and "freedom of citizens", it is important to pay attention to the reason for the creation of the constitution and its main tasks.

These goals are:

  • expressing and securing the consent of the people;
  • fixing certain forms of government;
  • regulation of the powers of government structures.

Also, the constitution allows you to initially realize democratic values ​​and only then engage in their implementation.

Conclusion

Studying the history of various states, one can come to the obvious conclusion: democracy, which has a competent and honest form of embodiment within a particular country, is one of the most optimal political models of modern society. This means that the freedom of the people will be preserved, and their interests will be taken into account and implemented.

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