Table of contents:
- Main Human Activities
- The essence of the concept of "creativity"
- The Problem of Creativity: A History of Research
- Basic Theories of Creativity
- Creativity as a process
- Stages of the creative path
- Basic types
- Creativity and personality
- Creativity Motivation
- Academic and folk art
- Treatment with creativity
- In conclusion…
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
As soon as man first picked up a primitive tool, he began to actively transform the world around him. By and large, the whole meaning of a particular human life comes down to this or that activity. It can be creative or destructive, spontaneous or purposeful, spiritual, material or creative. In this article, we will tell you in as much detail as possible about the creative path of a person, the features and stages of its development.
Main Human Activities
What is activity? In the broadest sense, this is the way a person relates to the world around him. Human activity differs from animal activity in the following ways:
- Consciousness of the process.
- Aiming at a certain result.
- Transformative activity.
Any human activity has goals, motives, methods, means and tools. It also has its own specific object (an object, a phenomenon, or the internal state of a person), to which this activity is directed.
BIn social psychology, it is customary to distinguish five main types of human activity - creativity, play, learning, communication and work. We will talk about one of them in more detail below.
The essence of the concept of "creativity"
According to psychologists, there are only two levels of activity:
The first level provides for the banal repetition of those algorithms of actions that were created by other people. Such activities are based on experience and do not require significant mental effort. The creative level involves the creation of a qualitatively new product or knowledge, thereby contributing to the development of human culture and civilization as a whole. It should be noted that any creative activity is impossible without reproductive. To write a worthwhile poem, one talent will not be enough. The poet must first become familiar with such concepts as rhyme, rhythm and meter, not to mention the rules of grammar and style of speech.
Thus, creativity is a human activity, the distinctive criterion of which is the uniqueness of its final result. The concept of creativity can be considered in two different aspects: as an ability (in other words, creativity) or as a thought process. This will be discussed later in our article.
It is important to note that creativity is the only activity that simultaneously uses three rather unusual “tools” of the human brain: imagination, fantasy and intuition. Another important difference between creativeactivity from reproductive lies in the fact that not only the final result, but also the process of such activity itself has value here.
By the way, a separate branch of philosophy, heuristics, deals with the problems of creativity and the creative path of a person.
The Problem of Creativity: A History of Research
The first attempts to study such a phenomenon as creativity began in ancient times. Many thinkers of ancient Greece were sure that it was in this activity that the very essence of human existence lies. At the same time, ancient philosophers distinguished between divine and actually human creativity.
But the most active period of research into this problem fell on the last century. At the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, a special discipline was born - the psychology of creativity. She combined psychological, aesthetic, philosophical knowledge and ideas.
In the second half of the twentieth century, there was a demand for creative and creative workers, which gave a new impetus to the development of this scientific discipline. Nowadays, not only psychologists, but also sociologists, culturologists and even economists are actively engaged in it. All this once again confirms the fact that the role of creativity at the current stage of human development is steadily growing.
Basic Theories of Creativity
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erich Neumann, Abraham Maslow - all these scientists were more or less interested in the problem of creativity.
So, notoriousAustrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, the author of the theory of psychoanalysis, believed that creativity is a kind of sublimation of human sexual energy. But the father of analytical psychology, Carl Jung, considered the archetypes of the collective unconscious to be sources of creative inspiration - genetically shapeless structures that take shape in art.
An interesting theory is offered by the founder of individual psychology, Alfred Adler. In his opinion, each person is initially endowed with creative potential. In addition, Adler's theory considers art as a way for a person to compensate for his personal shortcomings and shortcomings.
Gest alt psychology considers the creative path of a person as a special thought process, as a result of which disparate facts are combined into a single whole, which, in turn, leads to the so-called "insight". According to the concept of Yakov Ponomarev, creativity is a mechanism and a key condition for the development of matter, the formation of its new forms and variations.
Creativity as a process
This is how the German physician and physiologist Hermann Helmholtz spoke about "creative insight" back in the 19th century:
“These happy intuitions often invade the head so quietly that you don’t immediately notice their meaning, sometimes only chance will later indicate when and under what circumstances they came: a thought appears in the head, but you don’t know where it came from "".
It was in this way that scientific ideas and discoveries were born in the head of a scientist.
Creativity is,first of all, the thought process, as a result of which certain ideas of a person are realized in the outside world. There are five characteristic features of any creative process:
- Creativity. Any creativity (with rare exceptions) is aimed at creating a new, useful and socially significant product.
- Spontaneity, originality, non-standard thinking.
- A close connection with the subconscious.
- A clearly expressed subjectivity of the process, which gives the creator a sense of moral and spiritual satisfaction.
- Social orientation of the process. Any creativity needs to be assessed by society, and this assessment can be both positive and negative.
Here it is worth mentioning another important concept - the creative path. It means the independent practical activity of a person (artist, poet, writer, musician, etc.) to create their own tangible or intangible values (works). In a narrower sense, a creative path is a process of gradual disclosure of the creative potential of an artist, usually consisting of several stages.
Stages of the creative path
Different researchers offer their own gradation of the stages of the creative process. We will consider only three of them.
Soviet psychologist Yakov Alexandrovich Ponomarev identifies four successive stages of the creative path:
- Preparation (conscious work) - creates the prerequisites for insight and "conception" of the idea.
- Maturation (unconsciouswork) - moving the idea in the right direction.
- Inspiration (the transition from unconscious work to conscious activity) is the “birth” of an idea, and its entry into the sphere of consciousness.
- Development (conscious work) - the finalization of the idea and its verification.
Russian popularizer of science Pyotr Engelmeyer considered the creative process from the point of view of the work of a scientist-inventor and singled out only three stages of such activity. This is:
- Birth of an idea (invention hypothesis).
- Developing a scheme or plan.
- Constructive implementation of the plan (does not require much creativity).
P. K. Engelmeyer said this:
“In the first act, the invention is assumed, in the second, it is proved, in the third, it is carried out. The first act defines him teleologically, the second logically, the third factually.”
Another Soviet psychologist P. M. Yakobson identified seven stages of the creative process. Here they are:
- Intellectual readiness for the act of creativity.
- Problem definition.
- Generation of an idea and formulation of tasks.
- Search for solutions to these problems.
- Getting the principle of invention (discovery).
- Transforming a principle into a schema.
- Technical design of the invention.
What types of creativity exist in the modern world? There are several classifications. According to one of them, there are only two main types of creative activity: practical and spiritual. Although this division is sufficientconditional.
Practical creative activity is concrete and prosaic. It helps to turn the idea into reality. And here, of course, one cannot do without certain practical skills and abilities. Spiritual creativity is deeper and more interesting for scientists, because it is difficult to study. This type of creative activity takes place exclusively in the human mind. Moreover, the creator himself does not always control this process.
There is a more detailed classification of creative activity. According to it, the following types of creativity are distinguished:
- Artistic (this includes fine arts - sculpture, graphics, painting, etc.).
- Musical and visual (variety, choreography, circus art, cinema).
- Literary (prose, poetry, folklore).
- Applied (architecture, crafts, etc.).
- Scientific and technical.
- Sports and games.
Separately, it is worth mentioning scientific creativity. After all, it is, by and large, the locomotive of scientific and technological progress and allows science as such to conquer more and more peaks. Not a single scientist can do without creativity and creativity, be it a physicist, teacher, geographer or mathematician.
What can be the creative path of a particular person? And how can you motivate him to work? This will be discussed further.
Creativity and personality
Creativitycan also be considered as a process of interaction of the individual with the surrounding reality. So, S. L. Rubinshtein said the following: “By making changes in the external world, a person changes himself.” The Soviet psychologist Boris Ananiev believed that creativity is the process of objectifying the inner world of a particular individual. The well-known Russian philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev went even further on this issue, stating that “personality is a creative act.”
Outstanding American psychologist and economist A. Maslow considered creativity as a tool for human self-expression. At the same time, he insisted that the ability for creative activity is innate, not acquired. G. S. Altshuller had similar views. He believed that every person has creative abilities, but certain conditions are necessary to realize them.
How to start a creative journey? How to motivate yourself to be creative? V. N. Druzhinin wrote in this regard that "creativity stimulates itself." The main thing is to create the right motivation.
Once again, it is worth recalling that any person has creative abilities, regardless of his mental development. But in reality, not everyone develops a need to realize this rich and natural potential. The reasons for this may lie in the wrong upbringing, environmental constraints, restrictions and taboos of society.
It is worth mentioning right away that the motivation for creativity should be sought within oneself. A person must want to do something new and interesting. Creativity under the whip is simply impossible.
If you have a "creative stagnation" and you do not know how to get out of it, follow these simple recommendations:
- Play your favorite music.
- Read a good book or watch a quality movie.
- Sleep (sometimes good ideas come from a good night's sleep).
- Change the scenery, take a little trip.
- Think positive things only.
According to many psychologists, these simple tips will help you get back into your creative groove and continue working with a fresh head and renewed vigor.
Academic and folk art
Creativity can be professional (academic) or primitive (folk). Everything is extremely simple here. Academism in creativity is following clear and generally accepted rules and norms that are taught in special universities, academies and conservatories. Below is an example of academicism in painting.
Folk art, on the contrary, does not accept any rules. It is free and independent in its naivety. It is primitive, but not superficial. Folk masters, as a rule, do not have a special education and create according to the inspiration of the heart. For example, below is a drawing by a well-known representative of folk art - Ukrainian artist Maria Primachenko.
Folk art has several subspecies. Among them:
- Primitive (naive) art.
- Decorative-applied arts.
- Folk folklore.
- Amateur art.
- Amateur (domestic) creativity.
Treatment with creativity
Creativity, it turns out, also treats various diseases and ailments. Art therapy is one of the most popular methods of psychotherapy today, combining traditional treatment and creativity. It allows a person to resolve internal conflicts, reduce stress, increase self-esteem and eliminate behavioral deviations. The author of this method is the artist Adrian Hill. It was first used in the middle of the last century in the USA and England.
Today, art therapy is widely and effectively used in the following cases:
- Deviations in children.
- Psycho-emotional disorders (depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attacks, etc.).
- Recovery after severe and prolonged illnesses, injuries.
- Fighting bad habits and addictions.
The most commonly used creative activities for therapeutic purposes are painting, sculpture and music.
Creative activity, although it requires certain skills and abilities, is available to absolutely everyone without exception. Can't draw, have no musical ear or literary talent? No problem! There are many other areas of life where you can realize your hidden potential - this is science, pedagogy, politics, sports. Find your path in creative life and achievesuccess, create something new and original, getting unprecedented pleasure from the process.
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