What kind of means of collective protection are? Appointment and use of collective protection equipment

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What kind of means of collective protection are? Appointment and use of collective protection equipment
What kind of means of collective protection are? Appointment and use of collective protection equipment
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Each enterprise must comply with the relevant labor protection standards for two or more workers at the same time. Collective protective equipment includes devices or structures that guarantee this possibility. The safety of life and he alth of employees is ensured without fail at each enterprise.

Collective protective equipment includes

Safety must be achieved with regard to possible radiation, electric shock, temperature effects, vibrations, biological, chemical, mechanical factors, noise and much more. Means of collective protection at the enterprise are developed precisely for this. Such devices are divided into two main groups. Some are designed to ensure the safety of employees in the process of work, others serve as emergency shelters.

Classification of collective protective equipment

VHCs reduce or completely prevent personnel exposureproduction factors that pose a threat to he alth. Means are used to normalize lighting and air purification in working areas. Each enterprise must provide protection against falling from a height, contact with electricity, from biological, chemical and mechanical effects. The temperature range suitable for the body is always observed. Workers should not be exposed to lasers, ultrasound, vibration, noise, electric fields, and infrared, ionizing, electromagnetic, ultraviolet radiation.

Air and lighting safety

Collective protective equipment includes devices for ventilation, air conditioning, deodorization, maintaining barometric pressure, alarms, and autonomous control of the airspace. SKZ to normalize the visual situation in the working premises are lighting openings, lanterns, spotlights, protective devices.

means of collective protection at the enterprise

Influence of infrared, electromagnetic, ultraviolet radiation, noise and current

Collective protective equipment includes protective, warning, sealing devices, protective coatings, devices for cleaning liquids or air, decontamination, sealing, automatic control, control at a certain distance, devices for storing or moving radioactive elements, containers, safety signs. Noises are suppressed thanks to special technology, soundproofing andabsorbent coatings. Insulating materials, grounding, monitoring, alarm and automatic shutdown devices are used to protect personnel from electric shocks.

Exposure to static electricity and temperatures

Collective protective equipment includes dampening, grounding, shielding devices, neutralizers and anti-electrostatic agents. SKZ from low or high temperatures of equipment and air are devices for heating or cooling, signaling, remote control, automatic control, protective and thermal insulating devices.

Mechanical, chemical influences, as well as biological factors are also subject to maximum neutralization.

means of collective protection against weapons of mass destruction

Fall Prevention

Means of protection are safety signs, sealing, protective, safety devices, alarm devices, automatic control, long-range control, removal of toxins, air purification, preparations and equipment for deratization, disinfestation, sterilization, protective nets.

Fire fighting products

Individual and collective protective equipment for workers in case of fire must be available at every enterprise. According to the relevant order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, employees have the right to access devices and facilities to ensure group security, as well as special technical devices to prevent fireor life support. The safety of people must be maintained while work is being carried out to extinguish the flame and there is a threat to their he alth. Building designs should provide for fire walls, shelters, windows, doors, as well as locations for fire suppression and personal protection equipment for employees of the enterprise.

means of individual and collective protection of workers

Occupational he alth

Working conditions in hot weather in open areas and in production facilities in the warm season provide for the use of collective protective equipment for personnel to comply with hygiene standards (prevention of heat strokes).

Civil defense facilities

Collective means of protecting the population include various shelters in case of disasters, wars, accidents. The relevance of their organization for enterprises located in hazardous areas cannot be questioned. Government regulations are being created to regulate the design and operation of VHCs.

Means of collective defense against weapons of mass destruction

SCZ are engineering structures designed to protect the population. These are the most reliable means of defense of citizens in the event of the use of means of attack, the consequences of which are massive. Anti-radiation shelters can be used as shelter.

Means of collective protection against weapons of mass destruction prevent exposure to harmful gases, biological and other toxic substances, hightemperature, consequences of nuclear explosions. Such shelters provide several rooms for accommodation of people and equipment, as well as ventilation chambers, bathrooms, medical rooms, storerooms, power units and water extraction sites. For the most part in such projects there are several exits closed by an absolutely sealed hatch or door. They are always located in areas where the possibility of a collapse is excluded. Spacious structures include vestibules and shafts.

use of collective protective equipment

Ventilation

Supply of SKZ with air occurs in several modes. Clean ventilation as well as filtration is possible. Restoration of oxygen supplies and the function of complete isolation is provided in shelters built in areas of high probability of fire. Supply systems for electricity, water, heating, sewerage are connected to external networks.

The shelters are provided with portable backup devices in case of failure of the main stationary ones, as well as containers for storing water and collecting waste. Heating is carried out through the operation of heating networks. All shelters must be equipped with firefighting equipment, reconnaissance, protective clothing and spare tools.

Exposure to radiation

Means of individual and collective protection of workers in case of contamination of the area with radiation prevent exposure to ionizing, light radiation, as well as neutron flux, provide shelter from the shock wave, and avoid the ingress of toxic and biological substances into the body.For the most part, such shelters are equipped in basements. The possibility of quickly building shelters from reinforced concrete elements, timber, bricks, stones and even brushwood is not ruled out.

All sorts of buried rooms can be converted into fallout shelters. These include cellars, caves, basements, underground workings, storage for vegetables. The main characteristic of collective protection equipment of this type is the rather high strength of the walls.

Improving the security of the premises

To do this, window and unused doorways are sealed, a layer of soil is laid on the floors. If necessary, external backfilling of walls protruding above the ground is performed. Collective protective equipment at the enterprise is specially sealed. Cracks, holes or cracks in ceilings and walls, in places where wiring and heating pipes exit, as well as on window slopes, are closed. Doors are upholstered with felt or some other dense fabric.

Exhaust and supply ducts are designed for ventilation of rooms with a small area. In buildings adapted for shelter, but not equipped with a water supply system, liquid containers are installed at a rate of 4 liters per person per day. The bathroom is equipped with a cesspool. A portable container or dry closet can be installed. Sun loungers, benches and caches for food are also mounted. The outdoor power grid provides lighting for such premises.

classification of means of collective protection

Additional equipment of basements

Security properties of eachcollective protective equipment, the use of which, according to the plan, should provide shelter from radiation, can be increased many times due to additional equipment. After the commandant of the shelter gives the appropriate orders, all sealed doors, emergency exits, and ventilation plugs are closed. The air filtration system is activated. In case of penetration of toxic or poisonous substances, each resident of the shelter must immediately put on a personal respiratory protective equipment.

If possible, it is necessary to activate the oxygen filtering unit if a fire breaks out near the shelter or too high a concentration of potent poisons has formed. First you need to put the shelter in full isolation mode. Many people think that gas masks are collective means of protection. These are individual devices intended for personal use, which should be equipped with each shelter. After weathering the harmful substances from the shelter, gas masks can be removed.

Generally accepted rules

Only the headquarters of the civil defense facility determines the required duration of use of the means of collective protection of workers. The rules of conduct during the exit, as well as the procedure for actions, must be established in advance. The occupants of the shelter receive all instructions by telephone or some other means of communication. The service link manager should warn about the possibility of breaking cover.

Simple shelters

What means of collective protection can be attributed to the simplest?These are open or closed slots that can be built using improvised materials. The protective properties of the simplest shelters are very reliable. Thanks to their use, penetrating radiation, shock wave, and light radiation cause less damage. The level of exposure, the effect of biological and toxic substances on the skin is reduced.

Slots are built in areas where the possibility of blockages or flooding with rain and melt water is excluded. First, open structures are created. These are trenches in the form of a zigzag, consisting of several sections over 15 meters in length. The depth is up to 2 meters, and the width is about 1 meter. This shelter is designed for 50 people. Before equipping the gap, it is necessary to mark its plan on the ground.

what means of collective protection

Conclusion

Today everyone can find out what means of protection are collective. These structures and devices are provided to ensure the safety of working personnel at enterprises, as well as to protect citizens in cases of natural disasters, the threat of exposure to radioactive or chemical substances. Shelter can be equipped in any basement or structure with sufficiently thick walls. Each shelter must be equipped with the necessary devices to support the full life cycle of people, as well as a sufficient amount of personal protective equipment for the inhabitants.

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