Parliament of Moldova: leadership, powers, factions, number of deputies. Parliamentary elections 2019

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Parliament of Moldova: leadership, powers, factions, number of deputies. Parliamentary elections 2019
Parliament of Moldova: leadership, powers, factions, number of deputies. Parliamentary elections 2019

The State of Moldova is a parliamentary republic. This means that it is the parliament that plays the leading role in the leadership of the country. It acts as the highest legislative and representative body in the state. Who leads the Parliament of Moldova? How many deputies sit in it? And what are the powers of this authority? The answers to all these questions are in our article.

Parliament of Moldova: general information

State power in Moldova is represented by four branches. This is the president, parliament, government, as well as the judiciary. The Parliament of Moldova is unicameral. It has been functioning since May 1991 and is endowed with a whole list of the most important powers. In particular, within its competence: the adoption and interpretation of laws, the appointment of referendums, the approval of the state budget, the announcement of mobilization, etc.

Parliament of Moldova composition

Elections of deputies to the Moldovan parliament are popular and secret. They areare held every four years according to the mixed system, which was introduced in 2017. Barriers have been set for parties and blocs.

History of parliamentarism in Moldova: key events

Parliamentary elections in the republic in the entire history of its independent existence were held nine times. Moreover, four of these campaigns were extraordinary (early).

The first parliamentary elections in Moldova were held in April 1990. Then the deputies were still elected to the Supreme Council of the MSSR, but already in May it was renamed the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. It is quite logical that the first convocation of the Moldovan parliament consisted of 83% members of the Communist Party. True, many of them subsequently became members of the nationalist "People's Front". In the late 80s and early 90s, this political movement was distinguished by active anti-Russian rhetoric and advocated the unification of Moldova with Romania.

In the autumn of 1993, the first parties of independent Moldova emerged, in particular, the Socialist and Agrarian Democratic parties. Their members achieved the early dissolution of Parliament and the holding of new elections in February 1994. In 1998, the Communist Party (PCRM) was formed, and it also won the next elections, receiving forty seats in parliament. Until 2009, the entire power in the country belonged to the PCRM and its odious leader Vladimir Voronin. In fact, it was the only communist party in the post-Soviet space that managed to become the ruling one.

Parliament of Moldova powers

As a result of the riotsin Chisinau in April 2009, called the Twitter Revolution or the Lilac Revolution, power was taken away from the communists. Popular unrest was provoked by violations in the counting of votes during the next parliamentary elections. In the end, new elections were called, and President Voronin resigned.

Structure, leadership and factions

The internal organization of the Moldovan parliament is determined by its regulations. The work of the legislative body of the country is led by a chairman, who is elected by secret ballot of the deputies themselves. At the same time, two-thirds of the votes of the same deputies may release him from this post. At the moment, Andrian Candu, a member of the Democratic Party, is the chairman of the Moldovan Parliament.

The main working body of the Parliament is the Permanent Bureau. Its composition is formed in proportion to the number of factions. The Permanent Bureau determines the number and personal composition of commissions specializing in certain branches of government activity. In some cases (for example, in order to develop complex legislative acts), parliament has the right to create special, as well as temporary commissions of inquiry.

Parliament of the Republic of Moldova

101 deputies sit in the Parliament of Moldova. As of today, they are divided into six factions as follows:

  • Democratic Party of Moldova (PDM) – 42 seats.
  • Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (PSRM) – 24 seats.
  • European folk group - 9 seats.
  • Liberal Party - 9seats.
  • Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) – 6 seats.
  • Liberal Democratic Party - 5 seats.

Another six deputies of the Parliament of Moldova are non-factional.

Permissions and sessions

The parliament of the republic has a contented wide range of powers. Among them:

  • Passing laws, ordinances and resolutions.
  • Setting the date and procedure for nationwide referendums.
  • Approval of the state budget.
  • Approval of military doctrine.
  • Definition of key directions of foreign and domestic policy of the state.
  • Ratification and denunciation of international treaties and agreements.
  • Approval of honorary state awards (medals and orders).
  • Declaration of general mobilization (both full and partial).
  • Declaration of military or state of emergency.
  • Changes in the minimum wage, social benefits and pensions.

The Parliament of Moldova is convened twice a year. The first session lasts from February to July, the second - from September to December. Parliamentary sittings are open, although in special cases MPs are empowered to decide to hold a sitting behind closed doors.

Parliament Building

The building of the republican parliament is located in the center of Chisinau, at the address: Stefan cel Mare boulevard, 105. It is one of the brightest monuments of Soviet architecture in the Moldavian capital. Its construction lasted three years (from 1976 to 1979) under the strict supervision of the secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of MoldovaIvan Bodyul. The project of the building was developed by a team of architects led by A.N. Cherdantsev and G.N. Bosenko. It is an open book. In the central part of the building there are four columns that play the role of load-bearing structures.

Parliament of Moldova address

In Soviet times, bronze figures of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels sat on a bench in the courtyard of the building. The monument was made according to the unique at that time technology of “knockout” (the inside of the sculpture was hollow). In the early 90s, this sculptural composition disappeared, and in 2012 it was discovered in one of the parliament garages.

Parliamentary Elections of Moldova-2019

The next (tenth) parliamentary elections are to be held on February 24, 2019. 51 deputies will be elected by the majoritarian system (in separate electoral districts), and 50 more - by proportional system (according to party lists). The barrier to entry is 6% for parties and 8% for political blocs.

parliamentary elections in Moldova

15 candidate parties and 321 candidates in single-mandate constituencies registered in the election race. But according to the latest opinion polls, only three forces have chances to get into parliament. This is:

  • PSRM (leader - Zinaida Greceanii) - about 40%.
  • PDM (leader - Vlad Plahotniuc) – 15.9%.
  • ACUM block (leader - Maia Sandu) - 15.7%.

By the way, this year, along with the parliamentary elections in Moldova, there will also be a consultative referendum. One of the questions that voters will be asked to answer as part of theplebiscite will sound like this: “Do you agree to reduce the number of MPs from 101 to 61?”

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