Mountain nature: animals and plants

Table of contents:

Mountain nature: animals and plants
Mountain nature: animals and plants

The nature of the mountains at all times amazed humanity with its beauty. It is an amazing and beautiful world in every way. The relief has been created for many billions of years and during this time it has acquired bizarre and bewitching forms. What do mountains hide in themselves? What kind of plants and animals are there? You will find answers to these and other questions in the article.

mountain nature
mountain nature

Features of the nature of mountains

The mountain climate is unique and it is he who influences the weather of the entire planet, both seasonal and daily. On the hills, a special interaction of the earth with air and rivers begins. Water, condensing and originating in the mountains, descends in thousands of streams down the slopes. Thanks to this movement, the largest rivers are formed. On the hills, one can often observe how clouds and fogs are born. Sometimes these phenomena cannot be distinguished from each other.

The higher, the thinner the air, and the lower the temperature. Where there is cold, there is permafrost. Even the mountains in Africa are covered with snow and glaciers at their high points. But on the hills the air is the cleanest and freshest. With heightrainfall, wind strength and solar radiation increase. From the ultraviolet in the mountains, you can even burn your eyes.

No less striking is the variety of vegetation that replaces each other as the height increases.

Altitude mountain belts

When climbing in the mountains, climatic conditions change: temperature and air pressure decrease, solar radiation increases. This phenomenon is called altitudinal zonality (or zonality). And each such area has its own special landscape.

features of the nature of the mountains
features of the nature of the mountains

Desert-steppe belt. This landscape zone is located at the foot of the mountains. A dry climate prevails here, so only steppes and deserts can be found. Often people use this belt for household purposes.

Mountain-forest zone. This is a zone with a very humid climate. The nature here is simply amazing: mountains, forests and fresh air beckon you to go for a walk.

Mountain-meadow belt. Represents woodlands, alternating with subalpine meadows. Lightened trees, low shrubs and tall grasses grow in this zone.

Alpine belt. This is an area of highlands, which is located above the forests. Here you can find only shrubs, which are replaced by stone scree.

Mountain-tundra zone. It is characterized by cool short summers and severe long winters. But this does not mean that there is sparse vegetation. Various types of shrubs, mosses and lichens grow in this area.

Nival belt. This is the highest point, the area of eternal snows and glaciers. In spite ofrather harsh climatic conditions, there are certain types of lichens, algae and even some insects, rodents and birds.

The name of the most beautiful and amazing mountains on the planet

Huangshan and Denxia are colored mountains in China. They are colored yellow and pink. You can often observe beautiful lighting effects.

mountains in africa
mountains in africa

Mount Roraima in South America is always eye-catching. It is interesting because the channels of numerous rivers are covered with quartz crystals of various colors.

Grand Canyon is a whole complex of valleys, ravines, gorges, caves and waterfalls. Due to the multicolored rock layers, as well as the play of light and shadow, the mountain changes its shades every time.

In Africa, the Dragon Mountains are the most beautiful landscapes with canyons, valleys, cliffs and waterfalls. The name of the mountains has a mystical origin. Its peaks are always hidden by fog, but it used to be believed that it was the dragon that emits puffs of smoke.

Altai are mountains that Russia can be proud of. They are truly beautiful, especially in the autumn-winter period, when the waters become bottomless blue.

Hanging Rock is a mountain in Australia better known as Hanging Rock. It rises a hundred meters above the surrounding terrain. This creates the impression that the mountain is hanging in the air.

Natural hazards

The dangers lurking at every turn are the features of the nature of the mountains. It is worth remembering this when planning to conquer the peaks.

Rockfalls are most common in the mountains. Even the collapse of a single boulder can causean avalanche of boulders.

the name of the mountains
the name of the mountains

Mudflows are a mixture of water, loose soil, sand, stones and tree debris. This phenomenon starts suddenly and destroys everything in its path.

Icefalls are a beautiful, but no less dangerous sight. The frozen blocks never stop and almost reach the foot of the mountains.

Dangerous insects in the mountains

The nature of the mountains is dangerous not only for its formidable natural phenomena, but also for insects that are often found on the hills.

Perhaps the most common ixodid ticks. They are dangerous with the disease they carry - encephalitis, as a result of which you can even remain disabled. Ticks are found along trails and are most active during spring and summer.

The Vespa hornet is the largest representative of wasps, the size of which reaches five centimeters. These insects live in hollows and do not attack for no reason. The bite is painful, but poses a threat of attack by several hornets.

Scorpions most often inhabit the desert, but can also choose the mountains in Africa or Australia. Since they tolerate cold and temperature fluctuations well, they can be found not only at the foot, but also at the peaks. The bite of some species is known to be venomous and even fatal to humans. But without a reason, these creatures do not attack. Scorpions prey on insects, which often come to light near the fire and tents. During the day, they hide under stones, bark of stumps and in rock crevices.

nature mountains forest
nature mountains forest

Colopendra is dangerous only in hotclimate, especially in autumn. At this time, her bite becomes poisonous and can even lead to death. The female karakurt also poses a threat. The males of these spiders are not poisonous at all.

Mountain plants

As already mentioned, the mountains are characterized by different climatic conditions. Therefore, on the hills at a relatively short distance, you can observe the diversity of the plant community.

The nature of the mountains is harsh, but incredibly beautiful. Plants are forced to adapt to local conditions: prickly wind, cruel cold and bright light. Therefore, most often at a height you can meet undersized representatives of the flora. They have a well-developed root system, which helps to extract water and stay in the soil. Pillow-shaped vegetation is widespread, there are instances in the form of rosettes that spread along the surface.

Meadows with alpine grasses give way to tundras, which are a bit reminiscent of northern ones. Forests can be deciduous, coniferous and mixed. Here, trees and shrubs also grow in the form of dwarfs. Most often you can see larch, spruce, pine and fir. And only the highest ridges have no vegetation, but are covered with eternal glaciers and snow caps.

medicinal plants of the mountains
medicinal plants of the mountains

Healing mountain herbs

The medicinal plants of the mountains are very famous for their life-giving properties. People at all times have risen to the heights in order to prepare useful herbs for the future. All the variety of these species cannot be listed, but there are several of the most popular medicinal plants:

  • hawthorn;
  • Siberian barberry;
  • bergenia thick-leaved;
  • valerian officinalis;
  • spring gentian;
  • Highlander bird;
  • golden root;
  • St. John's wort;
  • fireweed;
  • maral root;
  • alpine poppy;
  • dandelion;
  • rosehip;
  • edelweiss.

Mountain animals

There are a lot of animals in the forest zone. When cold weather sets in, they sink into the warmer lower zone. These are deer, wild boars and roe deer. But representatives of the fauna with a warm cover and long hair only sometimes descend from a height in search of food and warmth. These include mountain goats, rams, argali, tundra partridge, horned lark, snowcock and mountain hare.

Mountain animals have adapted very well to harsh conditions. They perfectly tolerate cold and deftly move over rocks and steep slopes. These are not only ungulates, but also snow leopards, foxes, wolves, hares, ground squirrels and marmots.

animals living in the mountains
animals living in the mountains

Most of the birds come here for the summer, and only large predators live here permanently: golden eagles and eagles. Mountain reptiles also like to bask in the sun: lizards, snakes, salamanders and chameleons.

The nature of the mountains is so amazing and diverse that it certainly deserves human attention.