Monitoring (observation and action system) of the ecological state of the environment

Monitoring (observation and action system) of the ecological state of the environment
Monitoring (observation and action system) of the ecological state of the environment

People who have lived on planet Earth for many centuries have always been concerned with the problems of survival or the creation of conditions that are most favorable for life. And it is unlikely that at the dawn of mankind there were questions of saving the planet Earth itself. Unfortunately, that moment has come. The unfavorable changes taking place on the planet, dangerous for the life of the planet itself, and hence for all its inhabitants, have become obvious. And the cause of the danger is the man himself.

system of actions for the ecological state of the environment

If in ancient times man observed nature, then most likely out of curiosity. Modern man's observations of nature are of a different nature - they are carried out consciously and purposefully. Gradually, a coherent system of actions was created. Man began to observe the ecological state of the environment in order to save it. Back in the 1st century A.D. e. Gaius Pliny in his Natural Historywrote about observations of the natural environment.

Shaping the science of ecology

The method of human observation was used as a way to study a natural object. Observation was based on a long-term perception of phenomena and objects of the environment. A certain system of actions to monitor the ecological state of the planet was gradually developed and formed. The results of observations were systematized, forming a whole science - ecology. Its main task was to study the relationship of various organisms with each other and their relationship with the environment that surrounded them. A person began to understand the role of ecology in his life, began to notice and study the changes taking place in it and, in particular, singled out global disturbances in the biosphere that were caused by his own activities. There was a threat of ecological catastrophes on a global scale. That is why a whole system of actions was required and organized. Monitoring of the ecological state of the environment began to be carried out at the state level. Environmental issues began to be discussed at international forums. The science of ecology has become the basis and basis for overcoming the emerging global crises. The term "ecology", which in Greek "oikos" means dwelling or shelter, was introduced by the German evolutionist Ernst Haeckel back in 1866. The more the science of ecology developed, the more tasks arose before it, the solution of which was not always successful.

environmental monitoring system

For a modern person, powerlessness before forces has become obviousnature, and the main and important task was the protection of nature.

Harming the environment has become equated with a crime against humanity. In this regard, relevant legal norms and the system of punishments dictated by these norms were developed. The protection of natural objects in the form of a universal system of observation and control and an integral system of actions emanating from it becomes an everyday task and concern of any society and each person in particular. The ecological state of the environment is monitored both within each state and by the efforts of international organizations.


The natural environment, our habitat are subject to continuous changes in their nature, direction, and magnitude. The natural environment is also uneven in time and space. There is a so-called relatively constant level of performance against which new readings are compared. This average level can change significantly only within a long time interval. In this case, we are talking about natural, natural changes in the environment. Technogenic changes have a completely different character. The indicator of the average state of the environment in this case is unpredictable, it changes rapidly and sharply. This has been especially clear in recent decades. There was a need to study and evaluate various phenomena arising as a result of technogenic impact. An environmental monitoring system or a set of measures was created to identify, track changes in nature and evaluate them.Main monitoring tasks:

  • monitoring the environment and sources of influence on it;
  • assessment of the state of the environment;
  • forecast of the state of the natural environment.

There are several types of environmental monitoring:

  • of the biosphere itself - ecological (including geophysical and biological);
  • exposure factors (ingredient), studying pollutants, as well as the effects of noise, heat and electromagnetic radiation;
  • living space of a person or his environment (natural environment, domestic, urban and industrial environment);
  • temporal, spatial;
  • at various biological levels.

Monitoring is also distinguished on a territorial basis: global state, regional, local, "spot", background (the basis for the analysis of all types of monitoring). On a global scale, global monitoring and a global system of actions are considered. The ecological state of the environment is monitored throughout the planet. The principles of the global system were first defined and formulated in 1971 by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The state of the biosphere has attracted the close attention of scientists from all developed countries and all sane people on Earth. As a result, in 1973-1974. within the framework of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP Program), the development of the main provisions of the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) was completed.

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