Surface waters: seas, lakes, rivers, swamps. The value of water in nature and human life

Surface waters: seas, lakes, rivers, swamps. The value of water in nature and human life
Surface waters: seas, lakes, rivers, swamps. The value of water in nature and human life

Water is one of the most important foundations of life on Earth. It is present in the upper and middle layers of the soil, as well as under it. In this regard, surface, ground and underground waters are distinguished. All of them are important for each of us. In recent years, air pollution has been observed. It causes irreversible damage to all water bodies. That is why it is important to preserve the ecology of the Earth. In our article, you can find out more information about the various sources of water and their role in the lives of each of us.

Surface water. General information

Surface waters are waters that flow or form on the surface of the earth. They are characterized by flow. They may be temporarily or permanently on the surface. There are the following categories of surface water:

  • rivers;
  • lake;
  • sea;
  • bogs;
  • other water bodies and drains.

A river is a constant flow of water with natural flow. It has significant dimensions. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. They are filled by underground or surface runoff. Large rivers with branched tributaries create a river system.The part of the land from which the river collects water is called the catchment area.

Rivers are distributed quite unevenly. Due to the fast flow, they are actively used in economic activities.

Surface water also includes seas. They are part of the oceans. The sea can be isolated land or underwater landforms. It contains s alt water.

Another type of surface water is lakes. They are characterized as a component of the hydrosphere, which is a body of water that arose naturally, filled within the lake bed with water and not connected to the sea. Such surface waters are the object of study of limnology. There are about 5 million lakes on the planet.

Surface water also includes swamps. They are characterized as areas of land with high humidity and acidity, as well as low soil fertility. Wetlands are stagnant and flowing groundwater that has come to the surface. Thanks to them, incompletely decomposed organic matter is deposited on the earth. After a while, peat will form. Such natural waters are part of the hydrosphere. Swamps are a kind of obstacle to the development of the greenhouse effect.

surface water

Pollution of surface and ground waters

The problem of water pollution is annually discussed by environmentalists around the world. The main sources of pollution of water bodies are the insufficient level of purification of wastewater from industrial enterprises, as well as waste from the processing and rafting of timber, dischargesrailway and water transport, etc. Substances entering water bodies cause changes in their composition. They manifest themselves in changes in physical properties. Water can acquire an unpleasant taste and smell. Rivers, lakes and other bodies of water may have sediment or deposits due to significant changes in composition.

The main pollutants of water bodies today are oil and oil products. Due to their impact, water becomes toxic. It is considered unfit for consumption. Such dirty water has a specific taste, a pungent odor, a discoloration and an oil film on the surface.

No less negative are toxic synthetic substances. They are actively used in industry and public utilities. Due to the content of these substances in surface and groundwater, foam is formed. In this case, the concentration of toxic synthetic compounds exceeds the permissible limit.

Phenol has a negative effect on natural waters. It is found in the wastewater of almost all petrochemical plants. As a result - a decrease in biological processes in the reservoir, self-purification slows down.

A huge number of living organisms live in the water. The process of their vital activity is adversely affected by the wastewater of the paper and pulp industry. Due to the negative impact in water bodies, the death of eggs of fry and adult fish that inhabit rivers, lakes and other natural waters is read. Industrial alloys significantly pollute them. The driftwood settles at the bottom of surface water bodies. Because of this, fish are deprived of spawning grounds andfeeding places.

Population growth, the expansion of countries and the development of technology have significantly affected the environment. The problem of water pollution is associated with an increase in the amount of domestic sewage in inland waters. It is because of this that the growth of pathogenic bacteria and helminths is observed in rivers and lakes.

lake rivers

Pesticides and a variety of minerals that annually enter water bodies are of serious concern to environmentalists from all over the world. Rain and running water transport dangerous compounds from the fields.

The water cycle in nature

The water cycle is a process of cyclic movement of water in the earth's biosphere. The seas lose more liquid due to evaporation than they receive from precipitation. Water circulates regularly, but despite this, its amount on the globe remains unchanged. The water cycle in nature contains the following stages:

  • evaporation;
  • movement of water vapor and its condensation;
  • precipitation and runoff.

Surface and underground waters participate in the cycle. However, it often causes pollution of water bodies with pesticides and chemicals.

Content of substances in the waters of the oceans

In the waters of the oceans there is a huge amount of chemical elements. Sea water is 95% pure water. More than 4% is s alt dissolved in it. The water in the ocean differs from fresh s alty taste, transparency and color. It acts more aggressively on building materials. That is why experts do not recommendbuild a house on the ocean or sea.

The average salinity of the surface waters of the oceans is 35%. It should be noted that at some intervals this indicator may differ slightly. It depends on hydrological and climatic conditions.

Sea water contains a huge amount of different substances. For the first time its composition was considered by Dietmar. He needed to examine 77 water samples. They were collected in various points of the oceans. It contains almost all the elements of the periodic table. However, their content percentage is different.

The salinity of the surface waters of the World Ocean directly depends on the ratio between the amount of precipitation and the amount of evaporation. Precipitation reduces the percentage of s alt in the water. In some areas, salinity is also affected by melting and ice formation.

natural waters

The territory of the highest salinity of the World Ocean is located to the west of the Azores. S alt content may also vary depending on the season.

Some scientists have been trying for many years to find out the nature of the origin of s alt, which is contained in the waters of the oceans. Some claim that it has been s alty since its inception. Others attribute its salinity to volcanic activity. The waters of the oceans are an excellent solvent, so initially they could not be fresh.

Water in human life

Water plays an important role in the life of all living beings. That is why ecologists from all over the world annuallydevelop strategies that will keep it from pollution. Land water resources are usually referred to as surface water. They are also extremely important in the national economic complex. Important areas of water use should also include the consumption of water for industrial and domestic needs, as well as for communal purposes.

Water is often used in agriculture. It is essential for regular watering of flower beds, vegetable gardens, fields and orchards.

flowing water

Water is an integral part of all life. Without it, existence on Earth is impossible. Plants contain up to 90% water, and an adult about 70%. Its sufficient amount in the diet is one of the conditions for a he althy lifestyle. Water is involved in all chemical reactions that take place in the body of each person. It transports nutrients, removes toxins and toxins, and also helps to lower blood pressure. Drinking enough water regularly can prevent the formation of kidney stones. It is also essential for normal digestion. Water is a great helper for those who want to cope with excess weight. Thanks to it, fat accumulation decreases.

It is necessary to regularly replenish the water supply in the body. Without its use, a person can live only a few days. It is recommended to drink at least two liters of water daily for the stable functioning of all vital organs. Its deficiency immediately affects the body. A person gets tired quickly, and there is alsorisk of blood clots due to increased blood viscosity.

Many complain that dirty water periodically flows from their tap. In this case, experts recommend installing a special filter. There is an erroneous opinion that water from a well is he althy and clean. However, such a source is extremely rare. Some areas in which the well is located differ in the content of hazardous chemicals. Running water from a tap is not distinguished by its ideal purity and usefulness. However, surface water, which is used to supply the population, is regularly tested. It is safe to say that they do not contain radioactive particles and life-threatening trace elements.

Experts say that, despite the recommendations, most people consume up to a liter of water. This leads to chronic dehydration. As a result, headaches and weakness.


Rainwater is closely related to surface water. It is one of the main components of the water cycle in nature. What is the role of rainwater in our lives?

For many years, there has been an opinion that rainwater does not need additional treatment. It can be safely used for cooking and bathing. Unfortunately, this opinion is wrong. Rainwater could indeed be safely used in everyday life many years ago, when the environment was at a sufficient level. To date, it contains various harmful trace elements that can seriously harmhe alth.


Many experts say that with the help of rainwater, you can significantly save on drinking water. It can be used for watering home gardens, as well as washing a car or washing clothes.

Total water

Many people don't think about how much water there is on Earth. It is known that its amount is approximately 75% of the total area of ​​the globe. This indicator includes lakes, swamps, rivers, glaciers, seas and oceans. However, it is impossible to determine the exact volume of the hydrosphere. To do this, you need to know the number of underground sources, the depth of all reservoirs and the thickness of glaciers. Scientists can give only approximate data. 2% of 75% is fresh water. However, most of it is in a frozen state.

water pollution problem

Self-purification of surface waters

Self-purification of surface water is associated with various factors:

  • deposition of particles;
  • interaction with aquatic plants;
  • exposure to solar temperature and radiation;
  • destruction of contaminants by hydrolysis.

Self-purification from pathogenic bacteria occurs due to the antagonistic influence of aquatic organisms.

When surface water is contaminated with household waste, the self-cleaning process can slow down significantly. The impact of wastewater on water bodies depends on their nature. Household waste is epidemiologically dangerous. Industrial wastewater is causing water pollution with hazardouschemical elements.

ocean water

Surface waters and their variability

Over time, the chemical and physical properties of surface waters change. Sudden cataclysms provoke changes that occur in the shortest possible time. Properties may also change due to the season. Such changes can have both positive and negative impacts on surface waters.

Often, changes in the chemical composition of the reservoir create a problem for industrial production. In this case, the specialist needs to conduct research in order to navigate the development of new production programs.

Summing up

Water plays an important role in our life. It is one of the main components of the human body. Without its use, you can live only a few days. It is important to drink at least two liters of pure water a day in order to normalize your well-being.

Surface water is present in every corner of our world. These include rivers, swamps, lakes, glaciers, seas and oceans. They play an important role in human he alth and many areas of his life. It is important to protect surface water from pollution.

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