The deepest careers: top 10, location, geographic coordinates, reason for occurrence, development and history of creation

The deepest careers: top 10, location, geographic coordinates, reason for occurrence, development and history of creation
The deepest careers: top 10, location, geographic coordinates, reason for occurrence, development and history of creation
Anonim

Most minerals are underground. To get them, you have to open the upper layers of the lithosphere - the earth's crust and part of the mantle. Open-pit mining is the most ancient, but still relevant, technology.

A quarry is an artificially formed excavation on the surface of the earth, which makes it possible to extract a deep layer of natural resources. The funnel has a conical shape, which narrows towards the bottom, and spiral roads for vehicles are created on its slopes. Consider the top 10 deepest quarries in the world, where the main we alth of our planet is collected.

1 mine in South Africa

South Africa is a developed industrial and agricultural country, the subsoil of which is very rich in minerals. And it is no coincidence that one of the deepest quarries on our planet is located right here, in the city of Kimberley (geographic coordinates: 28 ° 44'19 ″ S 24 ° 45'31 ″ E / 28.738611 ° S 24.758611 in d.). Mine,which 100 million years ago was the mouth of a volcano, goes into the bowels of the earth, to a depth of more than 1000 meters.

50,000 miners manually dug the "Big Hole" mine in 50 years, covering an area of ​​17 hectares. The Kimberley diamond mine is not only the deepest, but also the largest open pit on earth, developed without the use of special equipment.

At the beginning of the last century, all work was stopped, and the gaping mouth of the Big Hole continues to attract tourists. However, this is where the risk of collapse of the edges of the mine and paved roads arose, so travelers should be very careful.

No. 2 - Yakut diamond deposit "Mir"

The deepest diamond quarry is located on the territory of Yakutia, in the village of Mirny (geographic coordinates: 62°31'36.7"N 113°59'31.8"E). Even from one glance at an open-type mine 515 meters deep and more than a kilometer wide, it becomes scary. The basin, in which in 1955 geologists discovered kimberlites (diamond-bearing rocks), was called the "kimberlite pipe".

Yakutsk diamond deposit "Mir"

Unfortunately, industrial mining of precious stones in the diamond capital of Russia was stopped 17 years ago, as open pit mining became unprofitable, and the Mir quarry was too dangerous for the lives of workers. Underground mines are currently under construction and some have already been put into operation, and the mothballed quarry is a local landmark.

3 - The BinghamCanyon Mine

When it comes to the deepest quarries in the world, one cannot fail to mention Bingham Canyon in the USA, located in the state of Utah (geographic coordinates: 40°31'12″ N 112°09'00″ W. /40.52, 112.15). This is the largest anthropogenic formation in which copper was mined. For the first time, minerals were discovered in the 50s of the XIX century, and since then the industrial development of a quarry has been carried out, the depth of which is more than a kilometer, and the width is 4 kilometers.

The Bingham Canyon Mine (USA)

Giant long-lived mining industry, recognized as a National Historic Landmark, was seriously damaged in 2013. A large landslide covered the construction equipment and destroyed buildings built nearby, after which Bingham Canyon was mothballed.

4 - Uralskoye field

Korkinsky coal mine, located in the Urals, in the Chelyabinsk region, is one of the deepest open pits in Eurasia. The field, where open-pit coal is mined, was considered the largest in the Soviet Union. Its depth exceeds 500 meters, and its diameter is more than 3 kilometers.

The quarry (geographical coordinates: N 54°53'55" E 61°25'1") was opened in 1931, and 5 years later the construction of the second cut began to increase the rate of production. The inhabitants of Korkino were evacuated, and in the summer the most powerful explosion in the history of the Urals thundered, after which a funnel 900 meters long and 20 meters deep was formed. 6 years ago, the authorities decided to close the cut, the sides of which began to move, and residential buildings,standing nearby began to collapse.

5 - The richest marble deposit

In Russia there is an amazing deposit of snow-white marble, which began to be developed in the 20s of the last century. In the village of Koelga, Chelyabinsk region (geographical coordinates: 54°38'53"N 60°54'52"E), there is a giant pit approximately 75 meters deep and over 1.5 kilometers in diameter. Now a huge enterprise has unfolded here, and 90 years ago, the stone was mined in an artisanal way.

Koelga marble is easy to cut and polish, and its transparency gives rise to a unique play of light and shadow on the surface. It is not a radioactive material, so it is used in construction without restrictions. It is with this marble that all Moscow metro stations, as well as hundreds of buildings and temples throughout the country, are finished.

6 - Chuquicamata, source of copper ore

In 1882, the development of the deepest quarry in the world began in Chile. Photos of Chuquicamata make one admire the skill and skill of workers mining up to 30 million tons of copper. In one of the largest sources of copper ore, work began only at the beginning of the last century and continues to this day.

Chuquicamata - source of copper ore

The Chuquicamata quarry (geographic coordinates: 22°17'S 68°54'W, 22.283333°S 68.9°W) is 4 kilometers long, and the depth already exceeds 850 meters.

7 - Escondida Quarry

In Chile there is a large-scale complex consisting of two quarries. Nearly 30 years ago in the northcountries discovered a large deposit, and at an altitude of more than 3 thousand above sea level, the development of a copper mine began, which acquired gigantic proportions. Its depth is approximately 645 meters.

The Escondida quarry, located in the Atacama Desert (geographic coordinates: 24°16'9.00" S 69° 4'14.03" W), has long been a world leader in terms of precious metal production.

8 - Australia's Goldmine

Australia's deepest quarry - Kalgoorlie Super Pit (geographic coordinates: 22°17'S 68°54'W, 22.283333°S 68.9°W). It is a gold-bearing vein about 570 meters deep and almost 4 kilometers long. It is a city-forming enterprise with more than 550 employees on its territory.

Kalgoorlie Super Pete

At the mine, discovered at the end of the 19th century, gold was mined in small mines, and then they were combined into a whole industrial complex Kalgoorlie Super Pit, which brings its owners a good income.

9 - Indonesian Quarry

Near the Punchak Jaya mountain range in Papua Province, Indonesia (geographic coordinates: 4°03'10″ S 137°06'57″ E / 4.052778° S 137.115833° D.) is the Grasberg quarry, located at an altitude of 4,285 meters above sea level. The mine, which is used for the extraction of gold, silver and copper, is also the most mountainous, which makes it difficult to develop it. And only recently, thanks to the use of special equipment, it was possible to establish production in fullvolume.

Giant man-made quarry Grasberg with a depth of 480 meters worked until the end of 2017, and now all development is carried out only underground.

10 - Copper quarry in the Andes

Tokepala Quarry (geographic coordinates: 17°14'42″ S 70°36'50″ W / 17.245° S 70.613889° W) is located in the city of Tanka, Peru. One of the most impressive man-made mines began operation in 1960. Its depth has long exceeded 80 meters, and the diameter of the basin in the majestic Andes is more than 2 thousand meters. Initially, Toquepala was developed for copper mining, and now molybdenum and silver are mined here. The extracted rock is dumped next to the deepest quarry in the country, and artificial bulk mountains have formed in its north.

Tokepal copper quarry

Large factories have been built nearby, where they enrich the ore used for the country's domestic needs.

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