Surely you at least once in your life exchanged with someone benefits, items for personal use. But what meaning does the term itself have in economics? This is what we will try to understand more thoroughly.
A bit of history
An economy based on the division of labor sooner or later begins to require the creation of a special mechanism for the mutual provision of goods and resources, as a result of which the producer could give away part of the goods he produced, receiving in return the missing components. Without such a mechanism, the principle of division of labor would be meaningless, it would simply stop working. After all, mutual interest is achieved only on the condition that, due to the division of labor, the producer manages to increase his productivity, and therefore, it is easy to release a certain part of the output and exchange it.
Exchange is a natural consequence of the principle of division of labor. But what does this concept carry in itself in a deep understanding?
So, exchange is a certain economic process that involves the transfer of benefits from one participant in economic activity to another. Benefits meanmaterial values, goods, services, information, even circumstances. The platform where the exchange takes place is usually called the market.
Exchange relations are built in such a way that at least two persons are involved in the process - giving and receiving. Each person makes a deal in order to get what he wants, that is, he pursues his own benefit. Exchange is a process in which a good changes its owner. In turn, the owner has the right to own, dispose and use the good that belongs to him.
The economic efficiency of the exchange is achieved only if the costs associated with them are less than the cost of the proposed good, be it a good or a service. Efficiency at the same time depends on the time costs associated with the exchange. But this time could be spent on generating income or acquiring knowledge that would later lead you to the pinnacle of success. And this also needs to be taken into account.
Note: the creation of large trading networks and trading through online stores, which is a kind of exchange, allows you to reduce costs, thereby increasing the efficiency of the operation.
Exchange rules are an integral part of the deal. To do so, a number of conditions must be met. First of all, each party must:
- to have a certain good;
- be interested in an exchange;
- to be free to choose andindependently decide whether to enter into economic relations or not;
- be able to deliver your product.
Types of exchange
Exchange is an economic phenomenon presented in several varieties:
- Barter is a type of exchange with minimal efficiency. It implies a sharp increase in transaction costs. Most often, barter reaches its development in the conditions of an economic crisis, as it can proceed even in the absence of funds in the accounts of individuals and legal entities.
- Trade is a form of exchange that implies the emergence of a universal commodity (money). It is money that is accepted by all parties and participants in the transaction. At the same time, money can act in all forms, and not just in the form of cash. So, for example, in the conditions of the modern economy, electronic money is very popular.
- Giving is a form of exchange that proceeds unilaterally. One party benefits in the form of the goods it needs, and the other receives moral satisfaction from the transaction.