- Siberian roe deer
- Biology and breeding season
- Closest relative
- Siberian roe deer. Description
- Roe deer lifespan
- Reproduction of offspring
- Pregnancy and babies
- Protected status
In different languages, the name of the Siberian roe deer sounds differently: in English - Siberian Roe Deer, in German - Sibirischen Rehwild, in Spanish - Corzo Siberiano, in French - Chevreuil de Sibérie. Often it is also called eastern. But few people know that other types of roe deer are distinguished in the family of these beauties. There are five of them in total, the SCI book of records combines them into two for the purpose of correct accounting: Siberian roe deer (three variants - pygargus, caucasicus, tianschanicus) and Chinese. Two subspecies of the latter are known, bedfordi and mela-notis. We will focus in more detail on the first option, the most typical representative of this artiodactyl specimen.
Siberian roe deer
Capreolus pygargus is a small, elegant reddish-brown deer. This color is characteristic of the animal during the summer. Further, the roe deer becomes gray, pale brown or even black - in the winter season. Her tail is very small, and in the cold it is completely invisible or completely absent. Males are larger than females and have short horns, usually with three points. The canopy is kept from October to January. A new pair, which begins to grow rapidly, is immediately covered with "velvet"lined skin, it is she who supplies blood to the growing horns.
You can see these animals in the northeastern regions of Asia: in Mongolia, on the Korean Peninsula, in the regions of Eastern Tibet, Northeast China, in the Tien Shan. A large population of representatives of this species of deer lives in the southern part of the West Siberian Plain. In particular, the most extensive roe deer habitat is located in the Kurgan region. The nature of these places is the best suited for its existence and reproduction.
Biology and breeding season
Siberian roe deer can be active for 24 hours, but its main peaks of playfulness are at dawn and dusk. You can meet animals either singly or in small mixed groups. In winter they tend to form larger groups as it is easier to forage together. The diet of roe deer is quite wide, its diversity depends on the season and includes leaves of shrubs, trees, weeds, acorns, mushrooms, coniferous shoots and ferns. The breeding season, or "rut", occurs from mid-July to August. During this time, male roe deer become very aggressive and actively defend their territory. Fights between males are frequent. They represent a clash of two males who block each other with horns, press and twist them. Such fights can result in serious injury and even death.
Winning, the winner can then mate with the female. Courtship includes winningchasing the female for some time until she is ready to mate. Although the latter occurs in August, the fertilized egg does not begin to develop until late December or early January. A roe deer gives birth to one to three cubs, more often in May-June. Very often twins are obtained. After birth, roe deer leave their offspring alone for six weeks. Their inconspicuous coloration helps to camouflage individuals for a while, but deaths from predators are still high. After this time, the cubs stay with their mother. Both sexes diverge, but females tend to stay closer to the younger generation than males.
The closest relative of the Siberian species of these animals is the European roe deer. Their representatives are similar in lifestyle, habitat, food system and other areas of life. The only thing is that they have only slight differences in appearance. The Siberian species has a more massive body. Summer hairline is brighter, closer to red in color. Winter "fur coat" is much thicker and rougher. The horns point straight up, in a V-shape, and never touch.
It is noteworthy that the roe deer is a wild animal in Europe, which is allowed to hunt (though not everywhere). The horns of this beautiful representative of the fauna are not inferior in value to other European trophies. As a rule, it is customary to start the hunting season in early May, while the vegetation has not yet become dense, and small-sized roe deer can be easily spotted in it.
Roe deerEuropean is widespread in England, with the exception of its eastern part (Kent and Midland). It is also often found in Scotland, less in Wales. It lives throughout Europe and Asia Minor, except for the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. There is no this representative of deer in Lebanon, Israel, Northern Ireland and in Eastern Europe. Their distribution has been reduced, the range fragmented due to hunting and other human intervention. This fact happened in the late XIX - early XX centuries.
Siberian roe deer. Description
Externally, Capreolus pygargus is a small deer with a long neck, no mane, and relatively large ears (12–14 cm). The tail is in its infancy (2–3 cm) and cannot grow longer. In winter, the color varies from grayish brown to dark brown, in summer - from reddish to reddish brown. Males have rather dense skin on the head, neck and front of the body. The tail patch is absent or poorly expressed. More noticeable in winter. The top of the head is gray or brown, sometimes dark brown. Roe deer molt twice a year, in spring and autumn. Babies of this species look spotty.
Horns are present, and roe deer shed them annually in October-November. New ones grow almost immediately. Boys have slightly more than girls. In addition, they have a tubercular shape. Basal rosettes are clearly defined.
The hooves of the Siberian roe deer, the photo of which demonstrates this well, are narrow and short, with well-developed lateral muscles.
Analysis of 11 differentgroups of roe deer showed that the average length of the animal is 107–125 cm, height at the shoulders is 66–83 cm, body weight is 22–30 kg, the maximum length of the skull is 191–212 mm, and its width is 84–91 mm. By itself, it is small and somewhat elongated. The lacrimal bones are shorter than the orbital diameter of the cavity. The preorbital glands are in their infancy and the tympanic bullae are small. The anterior ends of the nasal bones bifurcate when pressed against the maxillary bones. Medium sized orbits. The maxillary bones are comparatively high.
In terms of habitat, roe deer prefer forest-steppes and small islands of forests among arable land. They love tall grass, meadows with shrubs. In addition, they like islands of land left after deforestation, which serve for reclamation. They also love tall grass and bushy meadows.
Siberian roe deer occupies a wide range of habitats, including deciduous, mixed or coniferous forests, swamps, pastures, arable land in suburban areas with large gardens. And you probably already guessed who prefers landscapes with a mosaic of forests and is well adapted to modern agricultural landscapes? That's right - Siberian roe deer. The photos in the article show this perfectly.
Roe deer consume about a thousand different plant species within their range. Of these, 25% are tree crops, 54% are herbaceous dicotyledonous, monocotyledonous - somewhere around 16%. They may eat conifer needles, but this usually only occurs inwinter time, when other sources of food are not available. Roe deer prefer energy-rich foods that are soft and high in water. Due to the small size of the stomach and the rapid process of digestion, their body requires frequent meals. They usually have five to eleven separate feeding periods per day. Can feed at hourly intervals, provided food is optimally available to them.
Food types change according to the season and the habits of the animals. However, one study found that differences in dietary composition correlated more closely with habitat than with season. Feed stocks are reduced in winter, and the diet becomes less varied. Consequently, the metabolic rate and food intake are reduced. In the spring, on the contrary, energy needs and the process of digestion increase. And they consume concentrates in the form of seeds or fruits in autumn.
Siberian roe deer eats absolutely all types of plants: grasses, wildflowers, blackberries, buds and leaves of trees, shrubs, loves mushrooms and various crops.
Roe deer lifespan
The maximum age that has been recorded is 17 years and 5 months in captivity. From observations it follows that young females (90%) survive better in the wild. In the wild, the average life expectancy of these animals is up to 15 years. It is worth noting that implantation can be from 2 to 5.5 months. So the total time of pregnancy is capablelast from 122 to 305 days.
Reproduction of offspring
Male roe deer reach sexual maturity by the end of their first year of life. However, they cannot start breeding offspring until the third year of life. They become physiologically capable of reproduction from March to October. But basically this process lasts from June to August. Only a few individuals experience this sooner or later.
Female roe deer are capable of reproducing when they reach 14 months. They usually go into heat for 36 hours.
Pregnancy and babies
Siberian roe deer belongs to ungulates, therefore it has a latent period of pregnancy, and, therefore, its reproductive cycle differs even from closely related species. Embryo implantation usually takes place in January. The fertilized egg travels to the uterus, where it divides. This is followed by 4–5 months of minimal activity. The gestation period is between 264 and 318 days. Fawns are born between April and July. At one time, two or three babies can be born. They weigh 1-1.7 kg, have their own distinctive color.
Cubs are practically helpless during the first few days of life and easily fall prey to predators. Feeding with mother's milk occurs until August and completely stops in early autumn, but sometimes lasts until December. After weaning from the mother, the deer completely switch to plant foods. They grow rapidly, two weeks after birth, their growth exceedsbody weight has already doubled.
Despite the rather extensive habitat and the excessive number of roe deer in some countries, up to negative consequences (frequent accidents), the Siberian roe deer is in the Red Book. The grounds for such a ban were: insignificant remnants of the population, as well as the threat of poaching and predation. Rare representatives of this species of Siberian animals are under serious threat of extinction due to the reduction of habitat, weather conditions and the consequences of human activity. Today, roe deer are widely protected in the UK. Certain methods of killing or capturing deer are prohibited under Appendix IV of the Berne Convention and are punishable by law. In addition to the above, it is known that measures are also being taken on the territory of the Russian Federation to combat poaching and to rationally manage the hunting economy in order to restore and increase the number of Siberian roe deer. This beautiful representative of the animal world is listed in the Red Books of the Tomsk Region and the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The fine imposed on the violator of the order for roe deer varies depending on the severity of the damage caused, is determined individually and in accordance with the law. It can be up to five times the minimum wage.