In the modern world there is not a single self-sufficient state. A dubious exception may be very limited systems like North Korea. However, they all the more confirm the inefficiency of complete self-sufficiency. Not a single state, even a very developed one, is able to absolutely independently provide all the conditions for a sufficiently effective reproduction of all services and goods for its citizens and state needs. And in this regard, the international division of labor is certainly a progressive and useful phenomenon. In essence, it is a specialization on a global scale. The international division of labor is a concept that modern specialists use in two aspects. Firstly, this is the direct specialization of countries in a variety of production of certain types of goods, for the creation of which in a particular country there are preferable conditions compared to other countries: cheap labor, raw materials, fertile soil, developed infrastructure, machine-building enterprises, and so on. Secondly, the international division of labor is a way of self-organization of the modern worldeconomy, which is characterized by the specialization of various countries in the creation of characteristic services and goods. After that, there is a mass exchange between them.
Process history and state of the art
The development of the international division of labor has occurred throughout human history. At fast or slow pace. Actually, this process has always been in close connection with globalization. The voyages of the Phoenicians, the trade of the ancient Greeks, the conquests of the Roman Empire, the caravan routes of the medieval era, the great geographical discoveries - all these are the steps and stages of the subject of this article. Any export or import of goods already implies an international division of labor. Countries have long traded within and outside of Europe. At the same time, this process began to develop especially intensively in modern times. Moreover, at an increasing rate. If previously the dominant role was played by characteristic geographical and climatic conditions: weather, natural resources, population, size of the territory, location on the map, now scientific and technological progress has led to a decrease in the significance of these factors. The development of transport links and many other opportunities that have become available today have brought completely different factors to the fore. The international division of labor in the modern world is the result of the development of the following features:
- prevalence of intensive type of economic growth;
- emergence of new industriesindustry;
- reducing the production cycle;
- expansion of services: banking, insurance, travel, transport and others (this factor has become especially significant in information societies).
In addition, the very nature of society has changed. Important socio-economic factors are:
- a way of organizing production within a country;
- mechanism for organizing state foreign economic relations;
- well-being levels in the country: economic, social, educational and scientific and technical.