Lyakhovo Manor: location, description, historical facts, photos

Lyakhovo Manor: location, description, historical facts, photos
Lyakhovo Manor: location, description, historical facts, photos
Anonim

The nineteenth century can be figuratively called the century of noble estate life. For half a year, the well-born nobles lived not in stuffy stone Moscow, but in their patrimonial estates. Over time, Moscow expanded and built up, absorbing the nearest estates within the city limits. Now Izmailovo, and Ostankino, and even at that time distant Kuskovo are completely built-up and inhabited Moscow areas. But in the Moscow region and today there is a sufficient number of old estates that have not yet entered the capital's borders. Unfortunately, many of them, which are of undoubted interest for history and posterity, are on the verge of destruction by people or time. Below is a photo of the Lyakhovo estate, included in this list.

Homestead main facade

Where is it?

Domodedovo district is one of the southern administrative units near Moscow around Domodedovo Airport. On its territory, according to published data, there areseveral well-preserved cultural and historical sites: the estates of the Morozovs and Konstantinovo, the Ex altation of the Cross Jerusalem Convent and six ancient temples, the area of ​​archaeological excavations - the Shcherbinsky settlement. Unfortunately, the list of these historical places does not include the Lyakhovsky estate, located in the same area. Lyakhovo near Moscow is located near the Vosta River.

To get to the estate of Lyakhovo, Domodedovo district, it is best (if you don’t have your own car) to go by rail from Paveletsky railway station, and then from Barybino station by bus number 43.

Stages of shaping the appearance of the estate

Located near Kolomna, the village of Lyakhovo is mentioned in the Scribe Book for the 1570s. For a long time it has been described as a sparsely populated and unowned place. And after the raids of the Crimean Tatars, it was completely burnt. The transformation of the territory began from the moment when it was first declared a patrimonial possession.

Period Owner Changes in the appearance of the estate
The end of the 16th c. Grigory Sidorov Unknown
Start. 18th c. Fyodor Vasilyevich Naumov Development of the village, construction of the manor house
2nd floor. 17th c. Anna Fedorovna Beloselskaya (nee Naumova) Unknown
The end of the 18th c. P. I. Pozdnyakova

The beginning of the design of a noble estate with a 5-room landowner's house: roofing and claddingwalls are made of wood. The decor of the master's house: expensive wallpapers, icons, dishes, rich furniture.

Next to the house - a kitchen (a brick hearth, a cast-iron boiler), a cellar, summer residential outbuildings, a stable, a carriage shed.

The area is surrounded by a wooden fence

Start. 19th c. Grigory Alekseevich Vasilchikov Master's house with outbuilding, barnyard and stables replaced with stone
1st floor. 19th c. Illarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov

Complete reconstruction of the Lyakhovo estate in the architectural style of Empire or mature classicism.

The residential building consists of the master's house itself and an outbuilding adjoining it. They are focused on the road.

Cour d'honneur abolished

Ser. 19th c. Alexandra Denisievna Zalivskaya Unknown changes. In 1873 it burned down, but was rebuilt again
1890s N. A. Agapov Unknown changes
The end of the 19th c. Aleksey Alekseevich Vargin The second master's house and outbuilding, which are not connected with each other, have been rebuilt. New landings have appeared
1917 State The estate was nationalized. A state farm with the same name was formed
1922 State Shoe factory "Paris Commune"
1945 State Experimental farm "Ilinskoye" with a kindergarten and a hostel

In yearsperestroika and restoration of the state Lyakhovo formally belonged to the state, but in fact no one looked after him and still does not take care of him. The historic site is empty and falling apart.

Lyakhovo is being destroyed

The fate of the owners

The first owner of the Lyakhovo estate is a certain nobleman Grigory Sidorov. Nothing is known about his fate. But much more is known about the second owner of the estate.

Fyodor Vasilyevich Naumov is a representative of an ancient noble family. Having received a home education, he initially got a job in the Judgment Order of Moscow. Later he was appointed adjutant to Ya. F. Dolgorukov, where he rose to the rank of Kriegs Commissar. He went from State Councilor to Minister-Advisor. He served in the Court Order and vice-governor of St. Petersburg, and then - the St. Petersburg police chief general. He did a lot of charity work.

His daughter Anna was born from a marriage with Maria Mikhailovna Samarina, married Prince Beloselsky. For a long time she lived with her husband in Paris, but then she returned alone to Russia. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, she was of a narrow mind, simple-minded and kind.

No information could be found about General P.I. Pozdnyakova. Even her full name and patronymic are not known. Nothing is known about Lieutenant General G. A. Vasilchikov, except that he was from the "locals". IV Vasilchikov, apparently, was his nephew. He was a well-known person in the world, a prince, he served in the Life Guards of the Horse Regiment, the Akhtyrsky Hussar Regiment, commanded a separate guards corps. Went fromnon-commissioned officer to general of the cavalry. In public service, he distinguished himself as Chairman of the Committee of Ministers and the State Council of the Russian Empire. Was one of the emperor's confidants.

No information was found about the life of the wife of the provincial secretary A. D. Zalivskaya, about the secretary of the court chamber and manager of the estate of S. D. Sheremetev N. A. Agapov and about the assistant marshal of the county nobility A. A. Vargin information could not be found.

Estate Development

In this part of the article, attention will be paid to the development of not the Lyakhovo estate itself, but the land belonging to it, on which the houses of the serfs of the estate were located.

In the 16th c. According to documentary sources, there are only four peasant households on the site of the estate, which were destroyed and burned during the raid of the Crimean Tatars. There is no information about the fate of the villagers.

Before the 18th c. there was a wasteland where the village had been. After the beginning of the arrangement on these lands of the landowner's estate, peasant houses began to be built nearby. By the end of the first decade, the yards of four peasant families were rebuilt here, forcibly relocated from another patrimonial estate of the owners of the estate, located in the Mikhailovsky district. Nine years later, there were already ten mowings and a little more than 300 acres of arable land.

By the end of the century, an extensive orchard grew here, three ponds were laid out in which fish were bred, a barnyard for cattle was set up, and a water mill worked. And at the beginning of the 19th century. a regular park with fountains and cascades was laid out.

By the middle of the 19th century. number of peasanthouseholds increased to 25. 99 peasants lived in them, mostly corvee workers. By the end of the century, the barnyard had replenished with 12 horses, sheep and pigs.

Estate plan

Architectural features of the estate

The main building of the estate is made of red brick. Usually its walls were plastered. The decor of the facades is laid out in the form of relief elements in a contrasting white color: medallions, vignettes. Also, the motif of a three-part window was used in the decorative design, and "blind windows" were used on the end facades.

Manor Lyakhovo

One-story building has a mezzanine with a balcony. The center of the main and courtyard facades is highlighted by an antique portico using the Tuscan order. The portico of the main facade has not survived to this day.

The two-storey outbuilding next to it has something in common with the architectural design of the manor house. The second floor also has a Tuscan portico - on double columns. The columns are placed on quadrangular pylons. These supports are decorated with rustication.

A movie is being made

In 1984, the shooting of Mark Zakharov's film "Formula of Love" by Mark Zakharov, well-known and beloved by many Russian citizens, took place in the Lyakhovo estate. It was this estate that "played" in the film the role of the landowner's estate of Alexei, a romantic and a dreamer, and his aunt, who was brilliantly played by Tatiana Peltzer.

Homestead in the movie

In the park near the manor's house, a hoax ceremony took place, arranged by Count Cagliostro, according to the materialization of the sculpture that adorned the meadow: either PraskovyaTulupova, or Juliet or Beatrice, or even someone completely unknown.

Praskovya Tulupova

It was in the park of the estate that the romance of the young master and Maria Ivanovna, the count's companion, rapidly developed. And it was here that a memorable photo was taken by a local amateur photographer, who so long begged for this favor of Cagliostro. One of the corners of Lyakhovo is captured in a photograph sent to Count Cagliostro in his place of imprisonment in Italy and brightening up his last days.

Now the interiors of the landowner's house are not at all like those in which Cagliostro swallowed forks for dessert, sitting at the dining table next to the local doctor (the role of the doctor was played by Leonid Armor.) You will not hear or see the rushing about with a heart-rending cry or Fimka, played by Alexandra Zakharova, walking with a plate of fritters.

Estate interiors

The carriage house has been preserved in a rather deplorable state, where a local blacksmith, a connoisseur of Latin, "repaired" the count's carriage…

Filmed in the Lyahovo estate in the 1990s. and another film - "Sad Paradise" by Arkady Krasilshchikov. The film did not become popular, but kept the estate in the history of cinema once again.

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