Table of contents:
- Research history
- Modern Research
- Why is Antarctica the coldest continent?
- Cruises to Antarctica
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
No other continent on our planet has attracted researchers like Antarctica. None so skillfully could keep their many secrets to this day. This is a unique continent, it is completely different from the rest. Of course, its main difference from others is the extremely harsh climatic conditions that have turned Antarctica into the coldest continent. This was also facilitated by the fact that the continent is the highest on Earth, its surface rises 4000 meters above the ocean. And also the fact that it is almost completely located beyond the Antarctic Circle. The South Pole of our planet is located in Antarctica, and also the pole of cold.
The existence of a large land beyond the Antarctic Circle, people assumed in ancient times. On some maps of the Middle Ages, not only the full outlines of the mainland are visible, but also details are indicated that are strikingly similar to the real ones. A lot of attempts were made to find the coldest continent, but the first one succeededto make Russian sailors Lazarev and Bellingshausen. It happened in 1820. The first people to visit the South Pole were Norwegians led by Roald Amundsen in 1911. But the real mainland began to be studied only in the second half of the 20th century. Then it became known that Antarctica is the coldest continent.
The territory of the continent does not belong to any state, there is no permanently resident population. But the mainland is of interest to many countries of the world, and they have built scientific stations for its study. Russia is no exception. Since 1959, by a special International Treaty, Antarctica has, in fact, been turned into a huge natural scientific laboratory in which scientists from different countries work together.
The researchers managed to establish that the basis of the sixth continent is the Antarctic platform. It is covered from above by a huge glacial dome, the thickness of which in some places reaches 4 km. And below it, as in other parts of the world, lie mountains and plains not much different from the rest. There are also active volcanoes, the highest of them is Erebus. There are many minerals in the depths of Antarctica, but they are still poorly understood.
Why is Antarctica the coldest continent?
The climate here is unusually harsh. -89, 2 °C - such a low temperature was once recorded here. This is the coldest place on our planet, called the Pole of Cold, located near the Vostok polar station. mainland surface,covered with snow and ice, reflects almost all incoming solar energy. Above the mainland there is constantly an area of high atmospheric pressure, the air from its center moves to the periphery. This causes strong winds and very low temperatures. The whole land here is occupied by an icy desert.
Cruises to Antarctica
To make an unforgettable journey into the realm of eternal cold today became possible for everyone. There are many travel companies that organize such trips. Tours usually last from 10 to 40 days, their cost, depending on the chosen mode of transport, reaches 60 thousand dollars.
Despite the harshness of local conditions, there are many extraordinary and interesting places for tourists on the mainland. An example is the dry valleys of Victoria, Master and Taylor - these are really the driest places on Earth, there has not been any precipitation for the past two million years. There is no snow or ice. The island of South Georgia will amaze with its unusual view, however, just like the whole of Antarctica. A photo taken in this corner of the planet will remind you for a long time of the coldest, but so beautiful with its severity of the mainland.
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