- Biography of the politician
- In the Supreme Council
- August coup
- Ratification of the agreement
- Dissolution of the Armed Forces of Chechen-Ingushetia
- Beginning of the constitutional crisis
- Constitution reform
- Negotiations failed
- Peacekeeping Mission
- Private life
Ruslan Khasbulatov is a prominent domestic political figure, publicist, a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He was the last head of the Supreme Council in our country. First he sided with Yeltsin, and then turned into his main opponent, provoking a constitutional crisis in October 1993.
Biography of the politician
Ruslan Khasbulatov was born in Grozny in 1942. After the deportation, his family moved to Kazakhstan, where he lived almost until he came of age. In 1962, the hero of our article went to Moscow, where he entered Moscow State University, received a law degree, and in 1970 became a graduate student at the Faculty of Economics of the same university. In his youth, Ruslan Khasbulatov was an attractive and imposing man.
In 1970 he defended his Ph.D., and ten years later - his doctoral dissertation. Since 1978, Ruslan Khasbulatov has been a full-time lecturer at the Plekhanov University of Economics.
When perestroika begins in the country, the hero of our article is a member of the scientific council under the Ministry for Social Development of the Soviet Union. In particular, Ruslan Khasbulatov takes an active part in the development of the draft law on rent.
In the spring of 1990, he was elected a people's deputy from the Grozny constituency. In his election promises, he advocates a united Russia with the ability to grant broad rights to autonomies, agitates for an equal union with all the republics in its composition, the formation of democratic power structures, and the transformation of the Soviets themselves into really working self-government structures that could adopt local laws.
In the Supreme Council
Significant changes in the biography of Ruslan Khasbulatov come when in the summer of 1990 he was elected First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. For a while, he even holds the post of acting chairman. And on October 29, he becomes the full leader of the Armed Forces.
In the fall of 1992, for a period of one year, Ruslan Khasbulatov, whose photo is in this article, was appointed to lead the Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the CIS Member States.
In the early 90s, the hero of our article is directly involved in all major political events in the country. In 1991, he played a key role in the August putsch.
He is the author of the appeal "To the citizens of Russia", in whichcondemned the actions of the GKChP. Experts say that Khasbulatov advocated an objective investigation of the GKChP case and opposed the arrest of Anatoly Lukyanov.
In fact, after August 1991, the work of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR was paralyzed. In this situation, he decides to turn the presidium of the Supreme Council into a real government, starting to manage all the affairs of the republic. This decision played an important role in the biography of Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov.
At this time, he is on the side of Yeltsin, calling for the ratification of the Belovezhskaya agreement at one of the meetings. At the same time, according to the Constitution, only the Congress of People's Deputies could do this, since this document concerns the entire state structure. In the fall of 1992, a group of deputies even sent a request to the Constitutional Court to check the legality of the decision of the Supreme Court on ratification. However, it was never considered.
Ratification of the agreement
In the spring of 1992, Yeltsin and Khasbulatov tried three times to ratify the Belovezhskaya Agreement at the Congress of People's Deputies, but failed. Moreover, from the text of the Constitution of the RSFSR they decided to exclude the mention of laws and the Constitution of the USSR, which later led to a confrontation between the President and the Congress.
In order to still implement the Belovezhskaya agreement, Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov, whose photo was often seen in the Soviet media, signs decrees on the termination of the activities of people's deputies, the abolition of the State Bank, the prosecutor's office and the judiciary. In March hecalls to prevent the holding of the VI Congress of People's Deputies.
As the hero of our article later admitted, the agreement was adopted by the Supreme Council under pressure from the military lobby.
Dissolution of the Armed Forces of Chechen-Ingushetia
The August coup led to an aggravation of the situation in some regions, including the Chechen-Ingush Republic, which was native to Ruslan Khasbulatov. The biography of the hero of our article was closely connected with these places.
The actual leader and organizer of the mass movement was Dzhokhar Dudayev, who headed the Congress of the Chechen people. When the GKChP was defeated, the Dudaevites demanded to dismiss the Armed Forces of the Chechen-Ingush Republic and hold new elections.
In September 1991, Khasbulatov arrives in Chechnya for the last session of the local Supreme Council, which adopts a resolution on self-liquidation. During the negotiations, in which the hero of our article participates, an interim parliament of 32 deputies is formed, which was later reduced to 9 people. Khasbulatov's assistant Yury Cherny becomes its chairman.
In October, Dzhokhar Dudayev is elected President of the Chechen Republic. Many do not recognize the election results, considering them rigged. In November, a state of emergency was introduced on the territory of the republic, after which the opposition leaders support Dudayev, who takes responsibility for protecting the sovereignty of Ichkeria.
Beginning of the constitutional crisis
PoliticianRuslan Khasbulatov becomes one of the key figures during the crisis of 1992-1993. This is a consequence of the confrontation between President Yeltsin and opponents of the new socio-economic policy pursued. On the side of Yeltsin's opponents, Vice-President Rutskoi and Khasbulatov with most of the people's deputies are speaking.
In 1992, the hero of our article officially proposes to Yeltsin to dismiss the incompetent government of Gaidar and Burbulis, in his opinion, but the proposal is not supported by the deputies.
For a while, criticism of the government weakens, but before the congress, Khasbulatov again strengthens it. As a result, he proposes to the president to change the essence of the extension of some special powers. In return, he wants to get the right to change the composition of the government at his discretion. He delivers a keynote speech in which he criticizes Gaidar's economic course, which plays a decisive role in the mood of the deputies, who reject his candidacy for the post of prime minister.
In September 1993, Yeltsin signs a decree on constitutional reform, which involves the dissolution of the Armed Forces and the Congress itself. He calls elections to the Federal Assembly, a powerful body that was not provided for by the current Constitution.
Khasbulatov proposes to take advantage of the provision of the Constitution, which allows the immediate removal of the president from power in his attempt to dissolve the legally elected authorities.
The Supreme Council adopts a resolution on the termination of Yeltsin's powers, the transfer of power to Rutskoi. On theExtraordinary Congress of People's Deputies is considering the issue of a coup d'état. This is how Yeltsin's actions are qualified. The congress decides to hold early elections of deputies and the president until March 1994. A few days later, the building of the Armed Forces, where meetings continue, is blocked by the army and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
On September 24, Deputy Kozhokin acts as a truce between Khasbulatov and Yeltsin. The latter gives guarantees of security and the possibility of unimpeded travel abroad in the event of a cessation of the struggle. The hero of our article categorically refuses them.
October 4, tanks are shelling the building of the House of Soviets, where the Congress is being held. Khasbulatov was detained. With supporters, he is placed in a pre-trial detention center. He is charged with organizing riots. On February 25, he is released, as the deputies decide on an amnesty.
In 1998, Khasbulatov stated that during the shelling there were dead, although nothing is officially known about the victims during those events. In 2010, he announced that he would file a lawsuit with the International Court of Justice because of those events.
In 1994, he organizes the "Peacekeeping Mission of Professor Khasbulatov". At the head of this public organization, the hero of our article travels to Chechnya to organize negotiations between Dudayev, his opponents and the authorities of the Russian Federation. He will fail, as the parties are not ready for any compromises.
A few months before the entry of federal troops into Chechnya, Khasbulatov called forset up a reconciliation commission at a rally in Chechnya, sign an agreement on the non-use of weapons.
Seven armed groups join the "peacekeeping mission" of the hero of our article. However, Dudayev announces that Khasbulatov wants to provoke hostilities in the republic in order to take his own place in domestic politics.
At this time, Khasbulatov meets with the leader of the anti-Dudaev opposition, agreeing to confront the regime of Dzhokhar Dudayev. The opposition forces decide to unite with the help of the so-called Provisional Council established in the region. In September, meetings and negotiations on the development of a joint strategy for further actions are constantly held on the basis of the mission, but this does not bring any significant result.
When federal troops enter the territory of the Chechen Republic, Khasbulatov returns to Moscow. He returns to work in his institute's department.
In 1995, the active phase of the military conflict began in Chechnya. According to the then influential newspaper Vremya Novostey, Khasbulatov, who had political weight in the Chechen diaspora, offers himself as an intermediary. However, the Russian federal authorities refuse his services. Already in 2005, Khasbulatov announced that Dudayev was flirting with Yeltsin, trying to deprive him of his parliamentary powers.
In 2003, the hero of our article announced plans to take part in the presidential elections in Chechnya, assuming that he would win in the first round. Ultimately, he nevertook part in the voting and did not even submit documents.
Ruslan Khasbulatov has a fairly large family. His wife's name is Raisa Khasanovna, she is ten years younger than her husband. They have two children. Son Omar, who was born in 1973, became the manager. The following year they had a daughter, Selima, who is now a doctor. The biography, family, children of Ruslan Khasbulatov have always interested his supporters. Today he has grandchildren.
Now Khasbulatov is 75 years old. He lives in an apartment in Moscow and in the holiday village of Olgino in the Mozhaisk district of the Moscow region.
His brother, Aslanbek, became a prominent historian, another brother, Yamlikhan, a writer, he died in 2013. The sister of the hero of our article, Zulai, also conducts research in the field of history.
It is known that in his spare time Ruslan Imranovich collects pipes, there are already about five hundred copies in his collection, smoking tobacco is his passion. The collection even includes the pipe of British Prime Minister Macmillan, which was given to him by his sister.