For starters, let's make it clear that the structure of a bank is not just a collection of departments and other divisions as part of territorial offices, which are run by a strict Board. In fact, we are talking about the internal organization of the work of a financial institution, which allows you to:
• formalize and structure management methods;
• develop the foundations of relationships within the organization;
• define groups of performers.
In addition, an appropriate system of control over all relationships that arise within the structure is also necessary.
Sounds a little complicated, doesn't it? But this is normal, because the structure of the bank is the most important aspect that allows you to achieve the main thing: to achieve the goals that were set for a financial organization, for example, a general meeting of shareholders.
In general, modern management is characterized by the presence of several models, let's say, configuration credit and financial institutions. At the same time, the structure of the Bank of Russia is no longer management. This is the Constitution and a specific Federal Law that determines the composition of the units in whose responsibilitiesincludes, among other things, control over the activities of other participants in the banking sector. Tellingly, the country's main banking institution applies in its work mainly economic management methods. But in special cases, they can be replaced by administrative ones. The current structure of the Central Bank is a single system, the management of which is centralized and built vertically.
However, let's get back to the "ordinary" participants in the domestic banking industry.
The most traditional is the mechanistic structure of the bank. It is of two types: functional and divisional.
The first is characterized by the presence of separate divisions, each of which was created to perform a clearly defined range of tasks. Here we should talk about the vertical hierarchy of departments, which include departments, departments, and so on. In other words, there is an operational division: credit, operational, currency department (sector).
As for divisional structures, here, when dividing, the orientation to the region, consumer or product is taken into account. Accordingly, each employee of a particular division is a kind of "universal soldier" who is ready to offer the client a full service for the types of services provided by a particular bank branch. Often inside it (department) employees are divided into several departments. One of the departments works only with individuals, the second -exclusively with legal, the third - with VIP clients. At the same time, those who work with clients belong to the front office, and those who are involved in the preparation of relevant documents - to the back office.
An alternative to the mechanistic is the organic structure of the bank. In this case, the financial institution focuses primarily on the changing environment. Therefore, it is customary to distinguish between structures of the design type and matrix. The former are created to carry out a specific project, while the latter are, in fact, a mechanistic structure that is combined with a project approach to the implementation of a particular task.