- Briefly about the main thing
- The mouth of the Irkut River
- Black Irkut
- The Irkut River in Buryatia
- Use of the upper reaches of the river
- Features of the river closer to the mouth
- River dwellers
The Irkut River is a tributary of the Angara, flowing from Lake Baikal. It is considered one of the largest watercourses in Eastern Siberia. The riverbed passes through Buryatia and the Irkutsk region. Its length is 488 km.
Briefly about the main thing
The river originates in the Eastern Sayan. The source is located on the highest peak of the mountain node Nuksu-Daban - the city of Munku-Sagan-Sardyk. It flows out of the reservoir Ilchir, which is located at an altitude of 1850 m. The lake resembles Baikal itself in outline, has an oblong shape, but is much smaller in size. It is 6 km long and 1 km wide. Irkut (a river in Russia), descending from the slopes of the mountain, is called Black Irkut, and connecting with tributaries - Middle and White Irkut. It is after this that it is formed into a large full-fledged water stream. The Black Irkut flows along the slopes of the Upper Sayan in the direction from north to east through the Tunkinskaya valley. It breaks through the mountains, forming the Zyrkazun Gorge. Throughout its length to it, the Irkut receives its large tributaries - the Bolshoi Zangisan, Zun-Muren, Tunku and Bolshaya Bystraya rivers.
The mouth of the Irkut River
The river in Irkutsk flows into the Angara.The reunion of the two water streams takes place within the city limits. At the confluence of the mountain river Irkut and the plain Angara, you can see an unusual natural phenomenon. It is well viewed from a bird's eye view. Irkut reduces the speed of the current in the region of its mouth, but does not immediately mix with the waters of the Angara. As far as the Bratsk Reservoir, both rivers flow "side by side": one strip is the yellow sandy waters of the Irkut, the other is the turquoise waters of the Angara. The total area of the catchment basin is 15 thousand square meters. km.
Irkut is a river that is conditionally divided into 3 regions. They differ among themselves in the course, the nature of bottom sediments, the coastline and the surrounding landscapes. Before the confluence of the tributaries of the Middle and White Irkut, the river is a typical mountain water stream. This site is almost inaccessible, as it is located high in the mountains. The banks of the river are rocky, high, and the current is fast. The water is cold and clear, and the fish are not found due to the fast current. The bottom is rocky and unstable, so Black Irkut is not suitable for fishing. This site reaches the borders of the Tunkinskaya valley. Starting from this place, the Irkut slows down its flow, becomes calmer, and its channel expands significantly.
The Irkut River in Buryatia
The Tunkinskaya hollow, together with the Khamar-Daban mountain range, is part of the nature reserve of Buryatia - a national park. The purpose of its creation was the ecosystem in this region. It is practically undisturbed and quite diverse.
This valley is surrounded by slopesTunkinsky Goltsov. Some peaks have a height of 2000-3000 m. The highest point of the mountain range is Strelnikova (3216 m). This section of the Eastern Sayan is often compared with the Alps for the similarity of the relief and landscapes. Irkut is a river (photo below), passing through the gorges. In the east there is a place where the mountain range breaks, and it is there that the channel of the water stream is laid. Thanks to the valley, the bottom of the river changes, it becomes muddy. There are mica deposits here, so the water acquires a characteristic sheen, but loses transparency due to silt deposits. This section of the river passes through the territory of Buryatia and ends near the border of the Irkutsk region, not far from the village. Tibelti.
The shores near Irkut in this part are gentle, densely overgrown with vegetation. Many settlements can be found on the coast: Guzhiry, Mondy, Torah, Dalakhai, etc. In total, there are 16 settlements on the river, including the administrative center of the Irkutsk region.
Use of the upper reaches of the river
Residents of villages, due to their proximity to water, have the opportunity to engage in agriculture and cattle breeding. In this area, tributaries adjoin the Irkut, filling it with water. In total, about 50 large and small rivers and 13 small lakes flow into it.
Irkut is a mountain-type river, but only in the upper two sections. Frequent rapids and rifts, a steep winding channel and a fast current attract fans of extreme sports to these places. On this section of the river, you can engage in rafting and other types of water tourism. Alloys are divided into sportscategories: "Upper Irkut" - 4th class, "Lower Irkut" - 2nd class (k.s. - alloy category).
Features of the river closer to the mouth
The last section of the river is flat. It passes along the borders of the Irkutsk region and ends at the confluence with the Angara. The width of the channel here reaches its maximum values: from 150 m to 250 m. The last value corresponds to the mouth. The average depth fluctuates around 1-2 m, the maximum - 6 m. For a long time in the lower reaches of the Irkut, they were engaged in rafting and rafting. This part of the river is part of the Baikal Reserve, a natural reserve, the purpose of which is to preserve intact cedar forests.
Irkut is a river that is completely located within the temperate climate zone. The climate here is continental. This area is characterized by sharp temperature fluctuations. Winters are cold and frosty, summers are moderately hot. The warmest month is July. During this period, the thermometer rises to + 19 … + 22 ° С. And the water can warm up to +15 ° С - in the lower reaches, and up to + 7 … + 9 ° С - in the upper reaches of the river. The coldest months of the year are December and January. The average air temperature drops to -15…-17 °C. In the period from October, when the first frosts begin, Irkut freezes over. It opens in early May. The average annual precipitation in the adjacent territory is 400 mm in the plains and 600 mm in the mountains. Most of it falls in the summer and falls as rain. But the food of the Irkut River is mainly snow. melt waterfill its channel and tributaries. But due to the rains, only partial replenishment occurs.
Irkut is a river with a rich water world. However, according to this criterion, it is divided into several sections. For example, in the upper reaches, due to the large mountain current, there is practically no fish, and in the lower reaches, on flat areas, there are a lot of them. Fishing is well developed. In the waters of Irkut, river perch, taimen, Siberian roach, grayling, burbot, catfish, and bream are found. There are 16 types in total. Of the amphibians, you can meet the Siberian frog, the Mongolian toad and the Siberian salamander. Reptiles are also common: common muzzle, patterned snake, viper.
The animal world is also quite diverse. In the forests along the coastline, you can meet predators such as bear, wolf and artiodactyls - elk and roe deer. And from small animals there are many squirrels and hares.
The hydronym of the river is of Mongolian-Buryat origin. In translation, the word "irkut" means "energy", "strength". The city of Irkutsk got such a beautiful name thanks to this river. It is known that at the beginning of the 18th century, on the drawings of the Siberian cartographer S. Remezov, this water stream was already designated as "Irkuts".