- German transport system
- Air service
- City communications
- There is an alternative
- A little about electric vehicles
- Main directions of development
The main factor in the steady economic growth of Germany is the intensification and modernization of production, which requires not only the introduction of new technologies and scientific developments, but also the development of transport and related infrastructure.
German transport system
The market and market relations are unthinkable without the interaction of producers and consumers of goods and services. The development of transport in Germany is inextricably linked with an increase in the scale of domestic and foreign trade. Gone are the days when the leisurely waters of the Rhine were the only trade route. Today the transport system is a complex intersectoral complex, one of the leading in the world. For 1 km2 of German soil, there are about two kilometers of various roads and communications. Main modes of transport in Germany:
Separately worth mentioning is the most environmentally friendly and slowest transport - pipeline, which accounts for about 4% of allcargo turnover of the republic.
The first regular railway service was opened in Bavaria in the winter of 1835. The locomotive train ran between Nuremberg and Fürth twice a day, delivering cargo and passengers.
Today, Germany ranks sixth in terms of length of railways (44,000 km) and first in terms of concentration. Almost half of them are electrified. The main freight carrier is the DB concern (Deutsche Bundesbahn), which combined the rail lines of the western and eastern lands, includes three divisions: Mobility, which is in charge of passenger transportation, Logistic (cargo flow and logistics) and Networks (maintenance of the service sector and infrastructure). Despite the improvement of the rolling stock and the efforts of the government, the volume of freight traffic is gradually declining.
Germany's railway transport is focused more on the transport of passengers. The fleet of high-speed express trains (ICE) is being developed, the route speed is increasing (average - 240 km/h, maximum on the route Berlin - Hannover - up to 450 km/h). The basic fare is quite high: for first class carriages - 0.41 euros / km, for the second - 0.27.
Rack railways operate in the mountainous regions of the country. For the entertainment of tourists, several routes with steam locomotives and retro cars have been preserved.
At the end of the twentieth century, thanks to a developed network of roads, including more than 40 thousand km of federal highways and almost 13 thousand km of autobahns (multi-lanehighways with a constructive separation of flows in the opposite direction), German road transport provided more than 60% of freight traffic and up to 90% of the country's passenger traffic. According to the Federal Motor Transport Office, the total number of vehicles in the country is approaching 60 million, with a density of 640 vehicles per thousand inhabitants.
Although in many large cities transport is prohibited from entering the central areas, problems with parking are very relevant. In addition to specially designated areas for cars of disabled drivers, there are separate parking spaces for cars driven by representatives of the beautiful half of humanity.
Germany is the only European country with no speed limits on autobahns. On other roads, the maximum speed limit is 100 km/h, in built-up areas - 50 km/h.
Germany's air transport can be briefly described by the advertising slogan of the largest air carrier Lufthansa - the best way to fly!
The heavenly paths for cargo and passengers were blazed in 1909 by the German airship company. The most famous airship "Graf Zeppelin" made 590 commercial flights to various parts of the world, covering more than one and a half million kilometers. The development of domestic and foreign airlines was facilitated by the Junkers company, which began mass production of passenger aircraft in the first half of the 20th century.century.
Today, German air transport connects the major centers of the republic with other countries of the world (the share of domestic flights is very small). The largest of 16 international airports, which ranks first in Europe in terms of cargo turnover, is located in Frankfurt am Main.
Shipping routes on the territory of the republic have a total length of about 7 thousand km. The volume of cargo transported through them reaches 260 million tons per year. Only a third part is accounted for by domestic transportation. The Rhine is an important transport artery. Regular steamship traffic along it was established in the late 90s of the century before last. Currently, up to 120 ships ply the Rhine daily. Navigation channels with complex lock systems link it with the Danube, Elbe, Rhone and Weser.
Germany's seaports have a very unfavorable geographical position and are far from the main industrial regions. Therefore, the main international trade is conducted through the Dutch harbors at the mouth of the Rhine, the share of which in Germany's foreign trade cargo turnover is greater than that of all ports of the republic.
Public transport in Germany has the most developed and efficient infrastructure in the European Union. Represented by the following divisions:
- Metro. Operates in 19 major cities. The most extensive and oldest network, founded in 1902, belongs to the Berlinmetro (10 lines, 173 stations).
- Elevated suburban trains. Although they form an independent transport network, traffic patterns in many cities are closely linked to the "subway".
- Buses and trams. Bus traffic is well organized. Stops can be found by the letter "H", green. Most stops are equipped with information screens showing the bus arrival time. Tram communication is most developed in the Eastern lands and in Bavaria. Part of the routes is laid underground.
Lovers of comfort can use the services of numerous taxi companies or rent a car.
There is an alternative
Inspired by the example of their neighbors - the Danes and the Dutch, the Germans also carried out their "pedal revolution". The starting point in 2002 was the national cycling development plan. Within a decade, an extensive D-Netz network was created, which is based on 12 federal bicycle roads with a total length of 10.2 thousand km. Bicycle transport in Germany has become an equal segment of the country's infrastructure.
Constantly improving services on trans-regional cycling routes have made cycling comfortable, and every year the profit from this type of tourism is growing rapidly.
Since 2008, about 3 million euros have been allocated annually from the federal budget for the development of various bicycle projects, and positive effects in the areas ofprotection of public he alth and the environment, road safety.
A little about electric vehicles
Characteristic features of the development of transport in Germany and the industry as a whole - minimization, and in the long term and elimination of the dependence of the country's economy on energy imports. That is why Germany is the undisputed leader among European countries in the development of electric vehicles. And if in 2011 the fleet of electric vehicles consisted of only 2.3 thousand cars, then, according to the plans of the authorities, by 2020 their number will reach a million, and over the next decade will increase by another six times.
The solution promises to be comprehensive: the necessary structure will be developed in parallel - the allocation of separate lanes for traffic, specialized parking spaces, the creation of a network of points for recharging batteries. Owners of electric vehicles are already exempt from paying transport fees for 5 years, and in the future this period will increase by 2 times.
The German business community and the government plan to allocate 18 billion euros for the implementation of these ambitious plans.
Main directions of development
Industry and transport in Germany are taking full advantage of the modernization of their structures and technologies to achieve scientific and technological progress.
German firms are increasing the production of electric bicycles, in which motor-wheels with a power of up to 300 W act as propulsors. Rejection of the transmission significantly increaseselectric drive efficiency. The use of nickel-metal hydride batteries will increase the range without recharging up to 50 km.
The improvement of high-class rail transport designed for international routes continues. The search for alternatives to distributed traction trains is underway, as the complete maintenance of the entire train of motor cars is associated with certain difficulties.
Despite the diversity, complexity and capital intensity of the processes, German transport strives to meet the promising requirements of the country's industry and society, in compliance with all environmental standards and requirements that are becoming tougher day by day.