- What kinds of monkeys are there?
- Primates of South and Central America
- African and Asian primates
- The rarest species of monkeys
How many species of monkeys live on our planet, what do they eat, what are the features of their life? We read about all this and watch TV shows with pleasure. And this is not surprising, because we are descended from a common ancestor. We have a lot of similarities, not only in appearance and skeletal structure, but also in behavior.
What kinds of monkeys are there?
Zoologists define two groups of primates, and these animals are classified according to them. They are divided into New World and Old World primates. The first group includes monkeys living in Central and South America, and the second - in Asia and Africa. And each group has its own distinctive features. New World monkeys have a tail with which they can hold on to branches while moving through trees, and a wide nose. African and Asian primates very often do not have a tail, but even if they do, the animals do not use it as some kind of fifth limb, their nose is narrow. These two groups include more than one hundred and sixty species of monkeys.
Primates of South and Central America
The following monkeys (species) live in this area: monkeys, tamarins, capuchins, squirrel monkeys (56 species), owl and night monkeys, titi, sakis and Uakaris (41 species),howler monkeys, spider monkeys and woolly monkeys.
African and Asian primates
The largest number of primates lives on these continents - more than 135 species. If you list all kinds of monkeys, the list will be huge. They are combined into broader categories: baboons, thin-bodied, colobus, mandrills, macaques. There is another category that includes the following types of great apes: gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee) and gibbon.
These monkeys belong to the marmoset family. They live in the warmest regions of South America: Brazil, Costa Rica, the Amazon basin. Tamarins are very easy to distinguish from other monkeys in appearance: the main distinctive feature is the mustache, although there are also beardless representatives of this species. Some have downright lion's mane. And because of their very unusual appearance, these animals are constantly hunted - poachers catch tamarins for sale on the black market. That is why this species is threatened with extinction.
In length, the body of a tamarin reaches from eighteen to thirty-five centimeters, with a tail - from twenty-three to forty-four centimeters, they weigh up to a kilogram. If you list the types of small monkeys, then tamarins will head this list. Their main habitat is the highlands of Brazil. In these places, the monkeys feel great: a mild, humid climate, an abundance of food. Tamarins live in small groups of 5-10 individuals, so it is easier for them to find food and defend themselves frompredators. At night they sleep on tall trees, and with the onset of the morning they begin to lead an active lifestyle: they look for food, look after each other.
Tamarins are omnivores - they are happy to eat both lizards, snails, insects, bird eggs, and plant foods - tree leaves, fruits, nuts and nectar. The food obtained is equally distributed among all members of the flock. If a stranger gets into their territory, then they all kick him out together, making frightening grimaces. The young are taken care of by the whole group. Toddlers up to four months of age constantly move on the back of their father. The monkeys talk to each other all the time, thereby informing each other about the food they have found and about the approach of the enemy.
These primates belong to the monkey family. These are very small and funny monkeys. Types of monkeys: real and green, hussar, talapoin and others (23 in total). The body size is usually small (like a cat), the coat is thick and very soft. The color of these monkeys is very diverse: olive, gray-green, light gray, brown, red, blue, black. The muzzles are slightly elongated, some representatives of this species have mustaches, sideburns and beards. The tail is usually twice as long as the body. Ischial calluses are small in size.
These primates live mainly in forests. Monkeys feed on both plant foods and animals. The diet includes young tree branches and leaves, fruits, succulent grass, insects and small vertebrates. Monkeys flee from enemies. It should be noted that the mostthe danger for them is the people who catch them for sale. Monkeys are well tamed, but for this you need to take cubs. An adult monkey, once in captivity, is almost impossible to train.
More than thirty subspecies are united in this genus of monkeys. The species of these primates form four groups. These monkeys live in Brazil and Honduras. Most of the time is spent on the tops of tall trees. The body length of the animal reaches fifty centimeters. The head is round, with prominent cheekbones. The color of the muzzle is usually pink or white. On the top of the head there is a black tuft, similar to the hood of the Capuchin monks (in fact, because of this similarity, the animal got its name).
Primates live in groups of 10 to 30 individuals. Together they get food, defend themselves from enemies and take care of their offspring. Capuchins are omnivorous: they eat both plant and animal food. It should be noted that these monkeys are very smart. They can crack nuts with a stone, beat fruits on tree branches. Having caught a tree frog, they clean off the mucus from it, wiping it on a tree. For up to three months, capuchin cubs spend all the time on their mother's back, crawling onto their chest to feed on milk. From the age of six months, they begin to lead a more independent lifestyle, eat adult food, but do not move far from their mother.
Howler monkeys are the largest primates in the New World. They are the size of a dog. Atthese monkeys have a long and very tenacious tail, which they constantly use when moving through the trees.
The body of the primate is covered with thick but short hair. Long hair only on the cone-shaped head. The jaw protrudes forward, somewhat similar to a dog's. The neck is very short, so it seems that it is absent altogether. These primates spend most of their lives in trees. During the day they climb under the very tops, where they look for food, and at night they go down lower, settling for the night in the dense branches of small trees. Howler monkeys are very afraid of water, as they absolutely cannot swim.
Monkeys feed on tree buds, leaves, succulent shoots and fruits. Howler monkeys unite in flocks, which number from five to forty individuals. The female, as a rule, gives birth to one cub, which she feeds up to 18 months. Young and childless females help to look after the baby.
The second name is the yellow baboon. The length of the body reaches seventy-five centimeters, and the length of the tail is about sixty centimeters. The color of the coat is yellow - hence the name of the primate. Baboons live in East and Central Africa (in mountainous and steppe regions). They eat, like most primates, plant and animal food. The diet of baboons includes bulbs, succulent grass, fruits, nuts, insects, lizards, bird eggs, etc.
Baboons never live alone. The group includes up to eighty individuals. There is a clear hierarchy in the pack, several adult males dominate. In case of dangerthey come to each other's aid. Friendly relations are established between males and offspring. The mature female cubs remain in the pack, but the young males are forced to leave. Interestingly, often herds of ungulates join a flock of yellow baboons. The fact is that baboons have very sharp eyesight, so they can warn of danger in time.
This is the largest non-great primate species. They live in West Africa. Sexually mature males have a very beautiful and bright color. They have a red beard, a bright pink nose, and blue stripes on the muzzle. Females and young males do not have such a bright color. The weight of males sometimes reaches fifty-four kilograms. Females are much smaller.
The diet of primates includes both plant and animal foods. Mandrills eat over one hundred and thirteen plant species.
These monkeys live in families, which include one male and ten to fifteen females. Each family is assigned a territory of fifty square meters, which they mark with an odorous secret. Pregnancy of females lasts two hundred and twenty days. Babies are born from April to December, at this time there is a lot of food, so the females have time to feed them. The bond between mother and calf lasts a very long time. Until the age of three, the baby comes to spend the night with his mother.
Gorillas are the largest great apes. inhabitthese primates in the humid forests of equatorial Africa. Until recently, the habitat of these monkeys was difficult to access. But the natives always knew about the neighborhood of these animals and tried not to meet with them, believing that they have a ferocious disposition.
The growth of gorillas reaches almost two meters, and the weight is from one hundred and forty to two hundred kilograms. The body is square. Coat and skin color is black. As males age, the fur on their backs turns gray. Like all primates, gorillas are diurnal. These monkeys feed exclusively on plant foods. They prefer stems and leaves, but fruits make up a small proportion of the diet.
Gorillas have a very calm, even phlegmatic character, despite their intimidating appearance. The female mates only with the leader of the herd, the pregnancy lasts eight and a half months. At first, the cub rides on the mother's back, and then walks side by side, holding on to her fur. Life expectancy is thirty to thirty-five years, but some individuals live for half a century.
The rarest species of monkeys
Man is very careless about the environment. Many animals were on the verge of extinction, including monkeys. Some species include such a small number of individuals that scientists around the world are sounding the alarm. Thus, the Society for the Protection of Animals took custody of drills - primates that are listed in the Red Book. The population of these animals has no more than ten thousand individuals. All monkeys (species do not matter) are exterminated by man at a catastrophic rate. And if this continues, then the planetmay lose these wonderful animals.
Nowadays, a pet monkey is not uncommon. Many pet stores sell these exotic animals. But it should be borne in mind that not all types of primates take root well at home. Here are some types of domestic monkeys that adapt well to captivity: tamarins, monkeys, gibbons, marmosets, capuchins. These primates are unpretentious in content, but certain rules must be followed. So, they should have a spacious cage, proper nutrition. In no case do not hit the animal and do not shout at it, otherwise it will close in itself, be aggressive and boring. Monkeys die very quickly in bad conditions.