- How has Victory Square changed?
- What else is remarkable about the city?
- Communication with space
- First flight
- City streets
On the right and left banks of the Oka River, at a distance of about 200 km from Moscow, is the wonderful city of Kaluga, founded in 1371. In the 17th century, the city suffered greatly from the defeat arranged by the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, and later from strong fires and epidemics. And only in 1775, when the Empress visited the city, the territory of Kaluga began to expand, and the city itself began to develop.
Today, among the many sights and memorable places, Victory Square in Kaluga deserves special attention. The memorial was erected in honor of the fallen soldiers during the Second World War.
How has Victory Square changed?
This memorial complex is located at the intersection of the main streets: Stepan Razin, Kirov and Marshal Zhukov. It contains several symbolic sculptures and monuments. The main monument dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the liberation of the city from German invaders was opened in 1966 on December 28th. After 4 years, the Eternal Flame was lit on the square, dedicated to the Soviet soldiers who died during the battles for the city. In 1973In 1999, in Kaluga, Victory Square was supplemented with a bronze statue mounted on a monument 30 meters high. It represents the Motherland, holding in one hand a model of the first satellite of the Earth, personifying space exploration, and in the other hand, a developing ribbon, as a symbol of the Oka River. In the spring of 1975, the remains of a soldier transferred from the Ilyinsky borders were buried under the monument. Also on the square there is a monument in honor of the prisoners of concentration camps and a monument dedicated to the Soviet commander Marshal G.K. Zhukov.
Currently, Victory Square in Kaluga is decorated with bright flower beds and alleys. In the shade of the trees there are comfortable benches for visitors and strolling townspeople. A pool with fountains was built around the monument.
What else is remarkable about the city?
Kaluga is a historical part of Russia. The life and work of many political and cultural figures, such as Tsiolkovsky, Gogol, Chizhevsky, Tolstoy, Pushkin and others, are connected with this city. In addition to Victory Square, there are monuments in Kaluga that deserve special attention.
At the entrance to the city on the coast of the Oka there is a monument, which was opened in 1977 and is dedicated to the 600th anniversary of Kaluga. The artistic and architectural composition is a sphere that personifies the planet Earth. Nearby is a high obelisk, in the center of which is a titanium bas-relief in the form of a profile of a man conquering space. Also on a wide observation area there is a marble slab with the image of K. E. Tsiolkovsky and 5 pedestals with images of significant historical eventsof the past. The observation deck offers a stunning view of the Gagarinsky bridge and the right bank of the river. The panorama fascinates with its view in the evening, when searchlights and backlights are lit.
Communication with space
Many monuments in Kaluga are dedicated to cosmonautics, since it was in this city that the great scientist and inventor K. E. Tsiolkovsky lived and worked on space exploration. Several monuments have been erected in his honor, but the sculpture located in the Peace Square is considered the main one. It is a rocket, at the foot of which stands a figure depicting a scientist looking up. The composition was installed in 1958.
Part of the Cosmonautics Museum is located in the open air, where exhibits of various rockets are exhibited, among which the Vostok rocket occupies the main place on a separate site. It is visible at the entrance to the historical part of the city and from the side of the Yachen reservoir.
There are also monuments in Kaluga dedicated to the first Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. One of them is located opposite the entrance to the Cosmonautics Museum. The figure depicts Gagarin as a young man in simple clothes with outstretched arms, trying to cover the entire sky. The monument is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the first manned flight into outer space. Yuri Gagarin visited Kaluga several times and was present at the laying of the foundation stone for the future museum. He threw a coin of 5 kopecks, which is currently in the building amongmany exhibits dedicated to space.
In Kaluga, the central avenue of the city is Kirov Street. Along it there are many cultural and historical sites, as well as shopping and entertainment complexes. Also here are administrative buildings, such as the Arbitration Court, the main office of Sberbank and others. For two kilometers you can find several architectural monuments and churches. Kirov Street ends with a small section of the dividing strip, on which there is an alley leading to the fountain on Victory Square.
In Kaluga, Teatralnaya Street deserves special attention, which the locals call "Kaluga Arbat". It crosses the central street of Kirov and originates from Theater Square. There is no transport on it, the street is intended for walking, relaxing and visiting small shops, souvenir shops, cafeterias located in the lower rooms of old two-story houses. The stone pavement descends from the hill and leads to the Old Torg Square. Along the way, you can see the Kazan Convent, the Art Gallery of L. A. Klimentovskaya and the Theater of the Young Spectator.
The city center of Kaluga is provincial streets, small shops, amazing nature, ancient architecture, historical monuments and sculptures, churches.