Kremlin wall. Who is buried at the Kremlin wall? Eternal flame at the Kremlin wall

Kremlin wall. Who is buried at the Kremlin wall? Eternal flame at the Kremlin wall
Kremlin wall. Who is buried at the Kremlin wall? Eternal flame at the Kremlin wall
Anonim
Kremlin wall photo

One of the main attractions of the capital, by which even foreigners recognize Moscow, is the Kremlin wall. Initially created as a defensive fortification, now it performs, rather, a decorative function and is an architectural monument. But besides this, in the last century the Kremlin wall also serves as a burial place for prominent people of the country. This necropolis is the most unusual cemetery in the world and has become one of the most important historical monuments of the capital and a place visited by thousands of tourists.

History of the Kremlin Wall

It took its modern form only at the beginning of the 16th century. The Kremlin wall was built of red brick on the site of the ancient white stone, and only in the eastern direction the territory of the Kremlin was slightly expanded. It was built according to the projectItalian architects. The shape of the wall repeated the outlines of the Kremlin fortress and looked like an irregular triangle. Its length is more than two kilometers, and its height is from five to twenty meters. The highest walls were from the side of Red Square. From above, the Kremlin wall is decorated with teeth that have the shape of a dovetail. There are more than a thousand of them, and almost all have narrow loopholes. The wall itself is wide, about six meters, it has many loopholes and passages. Outside, it is smooth, made of massive red brick. Over 20 different towers are built into the wall. The most famous of them is Spasskaya, on which the Kremlin chimes are located. In addition to its architectural and historical value, the Kremlin Wall now attracts tourists also with the necropolis created in the last century. It is a kind of cemetery that has become a memorial.

Creation of the Kremlin Necropolis

The first two mass graves near the Kremlin wall appeared in November 1917. They were located on Red Square between the Nikolsky and Spassky gates. About 200 nameless fighters who died during the October Revolution were buried in them. In the next ten years, more than ten mass graves appeared next to the wall. And of the three hundred Bolsheviks buried in them, only 110 names are known. Many streets and squares in the capital and other cities were named after them. Until 1927, the dead and even the leaders of the revolution who died their own death were buried near the Kremlin wall. There were also single burials of famous people of that time.

Kremlin wallburial

Who was buried at the Kremlin wall in the early years?

  • The first single grave at the Kremlin wall appeared in 1919. Ya. M. Sverdlov was buried in it.
  • In the early 1920s, many well-known party and government figures were buried in single graves: M.V. Frunze, F.E. Dzerzhinsky, M.V. Kalinin and others.
  • In the early years of the creation of the necropolis near the Kremlin wall, foreign communists were also buried. John Reed, Clara Zetkin, Inessa Armand and Sam Katayama are buried here.
  • Since 1924, the Mausoleum, in which the body of V. I. Lenin rested, became the center of the Kremlin necropolis. This place later became a tribune for prominent statesmen.
graves near the Kremlin wall

Burials of the 30-80s

After 1927, it was decided to bury at the Kremlin wall only outstanding members of the party and government, as well as great scientists. Fraternal burials ceased, but until 1985 many famous people were buried in this necropolis.

  • party and government members: Budyonny, Suslov, Brezhnev, Andropov and Chernenko;
  • in the early 60s, the body of I.V. Stalin was taken out of the Lenin Mausoleum and buried near the Kremlin wall;
  • all those who died in the rank of marshal, for example Zhukov;
  • outstanding pilots such as Chkalov, cosmonaut Gagarin and many others;
  • famous scientists Karpinsky, Kurchatov and Korolev;
  • Visitors of the necropolis who are interested in who else is buried at the Kremlin wall can see the names of Lenin's mother, his wife N.K. Krupskaya, writer M. Gorky, People's Commissar of Education Lunacharsky and many others.

How were they buried in the necropolis?

Until the beginning of the 80s, the Kremlin wall was used for the burial of famous people. Burials near it were of two types:

Kremlin wall
  1. To the right of the Mausoleum near the Kremlin wall are the graves of especially prominent figures of the party and government. They are decorated with sculptural portraits - busts by famous sculptors Merkurov, Tomsky, Rukavishnikov and others. The last person buried near the Kremlin wall was K. U. Chernenko, who was buried there in 1985.
  2. Most of those buried in the necropolis are cremated. The urns with their ashes are embedded in the Kremlin wall on both sides of the Senate Tower. Their names and dates of life are engraved on memorial plaques. In total, the ashes of 114 great people - scientists, military men, politicians and astronauts - rest in the wall. D.F. Ustinov was the last to be buried in this way.

What else is the Kremlin wall famous for?

Burials that attract tourists are not only on Red Square. The necropolis near the Kremlin wall includes the memorial "Tomb of the Unknown Soldier", located in the Alexander Garden. It was created in 1967 in honor of the 25th anniversary of the liberation of Moscow. The remains of an unknown soldier on a gun carriage as part of a funeral procession were brought from Zelenograd.

eternal flame at the Kremlin wall

The modern form of the memorial did not immediately take. A tombstone was installed on the grave of a soldier withcast bronze composition. On the folds of the battle banner lies a soldier's helmet and a laurel branch. The eternal flame at the Kremlin wall completes the composition. Later, an alley with porphyry blocks was added, under which the land of ten hero cities is stored, and in 2010 a 10-meter granite stele appeared in the memorial. It also symbolizes the memory of hero cities. An important part of the entire composition of the memorial is the Kremlin wall itself. The photo of this place is known not only in Russia, but also abroad.

History of the Necropolis

This kind of cemetery has existed for almost a hundred years. Its appearance changed several times, and in the 50s they even wanted to close it and transfer the ashes of those resting there to another place. They planned to create a special Pantheon for this, but this project was soon closed. The fate of the necropolis was not strongly reflected in the political events taking place in the country. Although politicians who were in disgrace were not buried near the wall, the already existing burials were not liquidated. Since 1974, the necropolis was included in the number of state monuments, and it began to be protected by the state. And part of it - the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier - has become the most popular place for tourists and visits of foreign statesmen. For many years now, there has been talk about the liquidation of the necropolis and the transfer of the ashes of those buried there to ordinary cemeteries. This is due not only to religious, but also to political considerations. But in accordance with the current legislation of Russia, for this you need to obtain the consent of relatives, which in most cases is impossible. Therefore, now the necropolis has becomearchitectural and historical monument. Many tourists tend to visit the Kremlin wall.

who is buried near the Kremlin wall

The meaning of the necropolis

From the first years of its creation, it has become a place of oath of soldiers, parades were held in front of the Mausoleum. During holidays, wreaths are laid at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. And in recent years, a permanent guard of honor from the soldiers of the presidential regiment has been standing near it. This place is visited by foreign delegations and ordinary tourists not only on holidays, but also on ordinary days. Not everyone knows who is buried at the Kremlin wall, but the fact that such a memorial exists is known not only in Russia, but also abroad. This necropolis has become one of the most popular attractions in Moscow.

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