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The Nizhny Novgorod Region is one of the administrative entities of the Russian Federation. It is part of the Volga Federal District. It is a fairly large region in terms of area when compared with other areas of the European territory of the country. The Nizhny Novgorod region covers an area of 76624 km2. It has a slightly oblong shape, being elongated from the southwest to the northeast. The center of the Nizhny Novgorod region is the city of Nizhny Novgorod.
The average population density is about 42 people/km2 with a total population of 3.2 million people. (in 2019). Agriculture in the Nizhny Novgorod region is quite diverse, but in terms of development it lags behind many other regions of the Russian Federation.
The region is located on the East European Plain. To the north and northeast of the Volga river bed (left bank), low-lying relief prevails, and the right-bank part is elevated andmore dry. The climate is cool, temperate continental. In the north, the average temperature is +3 degrees, and in the south up to +4.5 degrees. The amount of precipitation is 500 - 650 mm per year, most of which has a liquid phase. In the Trans-Volga region it is higher than on the Right Bank. The duration of snow cover is 150-160 days a year. The maximum thickness occurs in March and is up to 0.5 meters in the fields and up to 0.8 m in the forest. The maximum rainfall occurs during the summer months, which should be favorable for crop growth.
Forests cover 53% of the entire territory. In the north, their share reaches 80%. On the left bank, the prevalence of coniferous forests is high. The nature of the vegetation here is closer to boreal. The lower level of moisture in the south of the region contributes to the reduction of forest areas and the predominance of oaks and (to a lesser extent) other hardwoods in the forests.
40.6% of the region's territory has been allocated for agricultural crops. Arable land is the most widespread (65.5% of the total agricultural area). The second place in terms of prevalence is occupied by pastures (20.7% of the area). Grasslands are less common - 7%.
Among the branches of agriculture in the Nizhny Novgorod region, animal husbandry and crop production predominate. The share of the first (in monetary terms) is 50.7%, and the second - 49.3%. Crops such as wheat, rye, potatoes, buckwheat, barley, oats, flax are planted.dolgunets, onion, sugar beet. They also grow corn, rapeseed, millet, soybeans, sunflowers, peas, beans, hemp, strawberries, clover, alfalfa, apples, herbs, camelina and even mushrooms. The operation of greenhouse complexes allows you to get about 12,000 tons of vegetables all year round.
Agricultural work begins in the second decade of April and ends in the second decade of November, when the sugar beets are harvested.
In animal husbandry, there is a growing of pigs, cows (meat and dairy), goats, sheep, poultry, fish, horses, bees. Quite a lot of milk is produced (14th place among the regions of the Russian Federation). In addition, they also engage in traditional fishing. There are 3 poultry farms in the region: Lindovskaya, Vorsmenskaya, Pavlovskaya. However, meat products are not produced enough to meet all the needs of the region, in connection with which imports of meat from far abroad have been established.
The development of agriculture in the Nizhny Novgorod region varies greatly by industry. From 2001 to 2015 inclusive, there was an intensive growth in total agricultural production. The indicator increased from 17.6 to 73.5 billion rubles. in year. At the same time, from 2008 to 2010, there was a decrease in the output of agricultural products. Since the figures are given in rubles, this increase could be the result of an increase in food prices. Per capita, the indicator is significantly lower than the average for Russia (22.5 thousand rubles against 34.4 thousand rubles).
The most successful branch of agriculture is the cultivation of potatoes. The Nizhny Novgorod region ranks third in terms of output of this product in the Russian Federation, second only to the Tula and Bryansk regions.
Cattle prevailed in the number of domestic animals in 2015 (281 thousand animals). Of these, cows - 122 thousand. In second place are pigs (243 thousand). On the third sheep and goats - 77 thousand heads.
As for the dynamics, the number of cattle, including cows, has decreased markedly. The production of beef also decreased. At the same time, the production of milk remained practically unchanged. The production of poultry meat and eggs, on the contrary, increased. The number of pigs fell sharply in 2011, but in 2015 it increased sharply again, approaching the figures of 2010.
Thus, the agriculture of the Nizhny Novgorod region is characterized by moderate development and is based on crop production and animal husbandry. Beekeeping and fishing are of some importance. Agricultural enterprises in the Nizhny Novgorod region are quite few. These are mainly greenhouse complexes and poultry farms. As for the dynamics, it is quite multidirectional. At the same time, the 2008 crisis had a rather negative impact on agricultural output.