Table of contents:
- Historic moments
- What did the charter say about this?
- What else did the Red Army soldiers learn?
- Bayonet techniques
- Execution technique
- Butt kicks
- Fighting with soft tip carbines
The history of bayonet fighting in domestic military units dates back to the time of Peter the Great, when bagnets on guns were replaced with a special point, and the butt was also reinforced. The new design did not require the separation of the bayonet before each salvo or reload. The innovative connection significantly increased the offensive capabilities of the Russian infantry. It is worth noting that the Western European armies considered the stabbing element as a protective (defensive) weapon. Domestic troops used it as part of an effective element of an offensive operation.
The active development of bayonet fighting in the Russian army began under the commander A. V. Suvorov. Many people know his "winged" expressions that a bullet is a fool, and a bayonet is well done, and similar statements.
In fact, the outstanding commander purposefully taught his subordinates how to skillfully use edged weapons, which is confirmed by many literary stories and regular victories in the most important battles. Some Russian officers noted in their memoirs that selected shooters and rangers, combining firing andbayonet fighting, put Napoleon's troops to flight. At the same time, the units could be two to three times smaller in number than the French.
It was the above circumstance that was taken into account and carefully implemented in the Red Army. Moreover, the bayonet battle was positioned both before the Second World War and during the 41-45th years. In the early 30s of the last century, one of the main military "managers" of the USSR (Malinovsky) noted that such tactics were justified enough to optimally combine the combat capabilities of a soldier. At the same time, he gave the main place to educational moments of preparation in the specified segment.
Military experience shows that until recently, bayonet fighting was the decisive and finishing element of attacking actions. At least, there is a lot of documentary evidence for this. From this experience, we can also conclude that losses in hand-to-hand combat depend both on the virtuoso possession of cold weapons and on the inept use of the combat edge.
In a night standoff or reconnaissance operation, the combination of all possibilities, including throwing a grenade and using a bayonet, guaranteed minimal losses and a successful end to the battle. In order for this to become automatic, regular exercises, the development of a plan of action and exercises in peacetime were required. In this case, the chance of winning with "little blood" increased significantly.
What did the charter say about this?
In the combat regulations of the Red Army specificallyit was required that at the final stage of the combat mission, the soldiers, during the offensive, finally finish off the enemy precisely in hand-to-hand confrontation. At the same time, the very concept of "bayonet battle" in the Russian army was designated rather vaguely.
Among the theses and recommendations are tips like this:
- suggestion to fighters the idea that they all go on the attack to kill;
- any soldier must choose a victim in the ranks of the enemy and eliminate it;
- not a single person who meets on the way, regardless of his condition, should not be left without attention;
- The attacker must shoot and hit each enemy so that he does not get up again.
Understand and accept such a psychology can only be a person who will properly prepare for this. For such actions, training will be required to bring manipulations to automatism, as well as dexterity, strength, and prudence. In combat, everything must be used, including shovels, knives, hoes, axes, and all body parts.
What else did the Red Army soldiers learn?
Fighters of the Red Army aimed at the fact that the bayonet fight is an offensive prerogative. At the same time, the essence of such a confrontation was interpreted in terms of the fact that many soldiers were injured or killed due to the inept use of the capabilities of the available weapons, especially the bayonet. In addition, such conduct of actions was supposed to guarantee a positive outcome of any attack, including a night battle. Before hand-to-hand combat, it was categorically recommended to use fire to the last.
Also the Red Armyinstructed that it is necessary in close combat to push the retreating enemy with a bayonet and grenades to the line designated by the commanders. An enemy running at a distance was advised to pursue with the help of well-aimed and calm small arms fire. A steadfast soldier of the Red Army must never lose his offensive spirit, be the master of the situation.
Among the main methods of hand-to-hand combat is a thrust. In this case, the point rushes directly at the enemy, the throat and open parts of the body should be the reference point. To deliver a thrust, the rifle or carbine must be pointed at the target while holding the weapon with both hands. The direction is straight ahead, the left arm is straightened, the gun is advanced with the right limb until the magazine clip rests on the palm. Simultaneously with this action, a sharp straightening of the right leg is performed with the body moving forward. The injection itself is applied simultaneously with the lunge of the left leg, after which the weapon is pulled back, the position of readiness for the continuation of the battle is taken.
Taking into account the specific situation, the injection could be made with or without deception of the enemy. If the enemy does not have significant protection in the form of an opposing weapon, it was recommended to do the manipulation directly, without any tricks. If the opponent is covered with something, the action is performed with deception. That is, inflicting an injection directly, at the last moment the bayonet is transferred to the other side, in order to hit the enemy in an unprotected place. If the operation was not successful for the fighter, he himself fell underthreat.
When teaching bayonet fighting, the injection technique was carried out through several stages:
- Practicing an action without a special scarecrow.
- Performing an injection into a mannequin.
- Lunge strike with simultaneous step forward.
- Injection with a step accelerated to run.
- Perform actions on multiple targets with a variable trajectory.
- At the final stage, an injection is practiced on stuffed animals in different climatic, geological and camouflage situations.
When training and learning this maneuver, it is necessary to pay considerable attention to the development of accuracy and strength. At the training stage, the Red Guards often cited the saying of General Dragomirov, in which it was said that one must constantly remember the importance of the eye. This is due to the fact that the loss of a bullet cannot be compared with the loss of life.
In hand-to-hand bayonet fighting, blows with the butt were used when meeting the enemy closely, when it was not possible to make an injection. This strike is applied from above, backwards, from the sides or straight. For a side impact, it is necessary to simultaneously lunge the right leg forward and move the right arm from the bottom up to make a strong impact with an acute angle on the opponent's head. This manipulation was often used after parrying an attack to the left. In this case, it was necessary to push the butt down with the right hand, intercept it at a level above the stock ring and take the gun back. AfterTo do this, a swing is made, a lunge is made with the left foot, a blow is made with the back of the head.
To attack in this way back, you should turn on the heels of both limbs, without straightening your knees, swing with the maximum retraction of the rifle back with the magazine up. Then the right leg is lunged, the back of the head is struck in the face of the enemy.
Taking into account the tactics of bayonet fighting, a blow with a butt from above is applied by tossing a carbine with turning the clip up. Then the weapon is fixed on the fly with the left hand at the top of the stock ring. In this case, the right hand is located at the lower ring of the bed. The final blow is applied with a lunge of the right leg with a sharp butt angle. The impact in this case requires maximum accuracy, speed and strength. The training regimen of this discipline provided for practicing bayonet fighting on the bag. Vseobuch recommended using a special stick, as similar as possible in weight and design to a real rifle.
These defensive maneuvers are designed to defend against thrusts or if the opponent's weapon interferes with a preemptive strike. Having completed the rebound, it was necessary to respond as quickly as possible to the enemy with the impact of the butt or a bayonet stab. The direction of the rebounds is in both directions or down to the right. The maneuver is performed when the threat of a thrust to the upper body comes from the enemy. It is necessary to quickly move the left hand to the right side with a forward shift, perform a short and sharp blow with the forearm on the opponent’s carbine or rifle, and then makeimmediate injection.
To perform a maneuver down to the right, it is recommended to quickly make a sharp movement with the left hand in a semicircle, strike the enemy gun with the forearm. Such a maneuver is appropriate if the enemy is attacking from the bottom of the body. It is advised to do the chops only with your hands, on a small scale, without turning the body part. Sweeping amplitude is unfavorable, as it opens up space for the opponent to hit back.
Initially, the fighters were trained in the technique of rebounds, then maneuvers to the right, using a training device. Next, the technique of working with a scarecrow was worked out. At the finishing stages, trainings were performed with complications and various combinations of hand-to-hand fights.
Fighting with soft tip carbines
In order to develop swiftness, endurance, determination, perseverance in the soldiers to achieve victory, it was necessary to strengthen the "morale" of the Red Army. To do this, bayonet or saber fights in training were carried out in “sparks”, when two soldiers participated. This approach also made it possible to improve the technique of the techniques produced. Models of carbines or analogues with soft tips were used as training equipment.
For a successful result in hand-to-hand confrontation, it was necessary to remember that only active actions would bring the desired outcome and subsequent victory. In a battle with a conditional enemy, a soldier had to show maximum determination and perseverance. The manuals indicated that passive behavior inevitably leads to defeat.
It is worth noting that if in training the opponent showed success in attack, but poorly defended, it was necessary to seize the initiative and attack himself. With good protection of the mock enemy, in the process of training in Russian bayonet fighting, they were required to deliberately provoke another soldier into active actions, looking for weaknesses and opportunities for delivering a decisive blow.
To prevent the opponent from coming from behind, it was allowed to use all kinds of shelters and obstacles that impede the indicated maneuver. In the modern Russian army, the training of soldiers in hand-to-hand combat is also relevant, taking into account the fact that in peacetime you need to prepare for what can be useful in war, while strengthening the moral qualities of a fighter.