Table of contents:
- Greenland climate
- Vegetation and animals
- Why is Greenland called Greenland
- What happened next
- Greenland now
Greenland is the largest island in the world. It has an area of over 2 million square meters. km. It is under the control of Denmark. Due to the northern position and high altitudes, the climate there is harsh. The peculiarity of the location of ocean currents also contributes to low temperatures. The predominance of negative temperatures leads to a gradual accumulation of ice, the average thickness of which is 2300 m, and the maximum is 3400 m. Its total volume is 2.6 million cubic meters. km. From above, the ice sheet is sprinkled with snow, which is carried by the winds in the form of drifting snow.
Near the coast there is a rim not covered with ice, the width of which in some places reaches 200-250 km. If we consider the relief of Greenland, as it would be in the absence of ice, then the central part of the island will be located below sea level and, accordingly, will be covered with water. There will be mountain systems along the edges, with the highest and most extensive in the east of the island.
The article answers the question why Greenland is called Greenland.
The large size of this island and its meridional location lead to differences in climatic conditions. The most comfortable climate is typical for the southwestern outskirts. Summers are cold but not extreme, and winters are moderately frosty.
It is much colder in the west of the island. Here, the average January temperature is -27 °C. The most severe climate is typical for the central part. There, even in summer, the temperature is below -10 °C, and in winter there are severe frosts, often below -60 °C. It is almost impossible to survive in such conditions.
Greenland's climate is gradually getting warmer and the total amount of ice is shrinking. Over the past 23,000 years, melting has released so much fresh water that sea levels have risen by 4.6 meters. Ice melts in the coastal zone in summer, and its gradual movement from the center to the outskirts is typical.
Scientists have shown that the dynamics of ice is different in different parts of Greenland. Some glaciers are gradually shrinking, while others, on the contrary, are growing, and the size of others fluctuate without showing clear trends. Nevertheless, Greenland (whose name origin is one of the "arguments" of anthropogenic warming skeptics) is gradually becoming free of ice and, according to forecasts, may cause sea levels to rise.
Vegetation and animals
Vegetation cover is common only in ice-free areas. In the coastal zone in the extreme south of the island, thickets of somespecies of shrubs and birch crooked forest, as well as juniper. There is also meadow vegetation. Further north, it gives way to tundra, first shrub, then moss-lichen. And the most severe coastal landscapes are on the northern coast. There is an arctic desert with sparse vegetation.
Animals typical of these latitudes: polar bear, reindeer, polar wolf, and in the north - musk ox.
Why is Greenland called Greenland
Such a paradoxical name was given to it by the first European colonists. This was in 900-1000. ad. At that time, the climate was milder and warmer, especially in the northern regions. And the nature of the island has not yet been disturbed by man. The coastal zone was covered with greenery, and therefore the first impression of sailors could be like this. All this can answer the question why Greenland is called a green country.
There were gnarled mountain birches, lush meadows and good opportunities for growing vegetables. It was also possible to engage in hunting and fishing. In economic terms, the extraction of walrus tusk, which was exported to Europe, was of the greatest importance. All of this could explain why Greenland is called that.
The island has been well developed in the coastal zone. Many churches, 2 monasteries and 300 houses were built. Another plus was that the warmer climate allowed the sea to remain free of ice. At least between Europe and southern Greenland.
What happened next
Due to inept economic activities, there wereforests were cut down, and the natural brushwood accumulated over the millennium was used up. People had nothing to keep warm. At the same time, the island became much colder, which led to a decrease in the number of fish and the impoverishment of pastures. The number of livestock has declined sharply. There was an acute shortage of dairy products. Growing vegetables has also become more difficult. Another negative factor was the cessation of walrus tusk exports. This happened due to the fact that they began to actively import it from Siberia. The amount of ice in the seas has increased. And the ports were looted by pirates.
Material for the construction of ships due to cutting down trees has become scarce. Only boats could be built.
A vitamin deficiency has become a problem for local residents, which has led to a decrease in the growth of women and men. Some of the Greenlanders returned to Europe, while others crossed the Davis Strait to America.
The disappearance of the Greenland colony dates back to the 14th - early 15th century. In 1721, there were only ruins and graves on the island.
Currently, Greenland is a real paradise for tourists. In addition to the endless ice, you can see picturesque icebergs and fjords here. There are thermal springs in the extreme south of the island. Cities are multi-colored houses and structures scattered randomly among the undulating terrain.
Thus, we answered the question why Greenland is called Greenland. But only onethe name given to this island by the early navigators is, of course, no proof that the conditions there were favorable. In addition, we do not know exactly why it was called that. After all, the authors are long dead. Perhaps they were greatly surprised by the presence of greenery at such northern latitudes, and the name was given because of surprise and, perhaps, delight. Therefore, it is hardly possible to answer the question why Greenland is called Greenland now.