Table of contents:
- History of occurrence
- Our days
- General Sherman tree
- Another famous giant
- Description of sequoia
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
The giant sequoia or mammoth tree (as it is commonly called) is rightfully considered one of the largest trees in the world. Also, this long-liver is one of the many wonders of the world. This giant coniferous tree can reach a height of more than 110 meters, and its trunk is 12 meters in diameter. The lifespan of a miracle of nature is simply unthinkable. The giant sequoia has been living for over 5,000 years.
History of occurrence
To date, scientists have come to the conclusion that the tree of this breed appeared on earth 140 million years ago. This is proved by the found and studied fossils and other geological deposits, on the basis of which it is possible to calculate the approximate period of the appearance of a huge natural creature on Earth.
In ancient times, the sequoia spread in the territories that today are known as France, Japan and even the New Siberian Islands. The giant tree existed already in the Jurassic period, when the planet was inhabited by dinosaurs, and even then forests occupied vast territories in the northern hemisphere. According to experts, 50 million years ago, due to the fact that the temperatureon the Earth has strongly decreased, the glacial period has begun. The giant sequoia has stopped spreading across the planet and its range has greatly decreased. After warming, these trees remained at the same stage of development and remained growing in only one region.
The first giant sequoias were discovered by the Spaniards, who in 1769 sent an expedition to the area of present-day San Francisco. Mammoth trees got their name from the linguist and botanist S. Endlifer, who was the first to call them "red trees". Initially, no one knew what to do with these huge centenarians. They were practically not exploited, this is due to the fact that strong trunks were almost impossible to knock down, since neither an ax nor a saw took them. On top of that, the wood turned out to be absolutely unsuitable for construction, like, for example, pine or other coniferous wood. The giant sequoia forests were even decimated in 1848. By the time more than half of the trees had already been destroyed, the US authorities decided to start protecting the amazing creations of nature.
Today, natural sequoia forests are considered public property, but they have survived only on the Pacific coast of California. The mammoth tree also grows on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountains. This is the only place where the remains of amazing and beautiful forest giants are still preserved. This reserve covers an area of about 670 kilometers of the coast and about 45 kilometers inland. The giant sequoia does not grow high in the mountains, because for herhigh humidity is required. However, the mammoth tree copes well with low temperatures, which just helped this wonder of the world to survive during the ice age.
Every year, thousands of tourists come to the United States who want to be photographed at the foot of a tree. The reserve, where the giant sequoia grows, is also popular with the Americans, who even named one such giant after the famous American commander. This giant is protected, like any other monument, and is a cultural asset throughout America. Despite interest from scientists, it is not cut down under any pretext.
General Sherman tree
The 'General Sherman' giant sequoia grows in the Sierra Nevada and is considered one of the most amazing plants on earth. The height of the tree is more than 83 meters, and its trunk volume is 1486 cubic meters with a weight of more than 6000 tons. According to rough estimates, the tree is somewhere around 2700 years old, and it still continues to grow. Every year, the giant builds up as much wood as an 18-meter tree can. Scientists continue to study the only coniferous plant in the world that has seen the entire history of mankind in its life.
Another famous giant
Besides the "General Sherman" in the reserve there is another amazing tree - a giant sequoia (sequoiadendron). California, where it was cut down, still preserves the foundation of the giant. Moreover, italso honored by becoming the unspoken symbol of the state. The tree was cut down in 1930 at the age of 1930! On its core, some sectors are combined with paint and the following is written on them:
- 1066 - the year of the Battle of Hastings.
- 1212 - the year of the signing of the Magna Carta.
- 1492 - the year of discovery of America.
- 1776 - the year of the Declaration of Independence.
- 1930 - felling year.
Description of sequoia
The tree has a thick bark, the thickness of which is 60 cm. Wood moisture is completely free of oily substances, but contains large amounts of tannin, which makes it resistant to any forest fires. Even burned trunks continue to grow further, while other conifers die after such lesions. The wood of this tree is not subject to attacks by insects, fungi, diseases and rot. Its roots grow so deep in the ground that the chance of the tree falling in a strong gust of wind is zero. The giant sequoia, whose pictures and photographs are amazing, has a pinkish bark that becomes redder closer to the core. It does not rot for a long time, withstands huge loads and therefore is excellent for a wide variety of purposes, although it is not actively used.
An adult sequoia tree produces a huge amount of seeds, but only a tiny part of them germinate successfully, and even those that have made their way through the ground are forced to fight for their lives. The point is that young peopleshoots branch along the entire length, but the older they get, the more lower branches they have. Thus, the tree forms a strong dome that absolutely does not let in daylight. The giant sequoia forests do not allow anything to grow under this green canopy. Therefore, young shoots have to deal with low light, therefore it is very difficult to talk about the natural distribution of mammoth trees on earth. In the event that humanity actively uses such wood, there will be a need to create special reserves in which young trees will be grown.
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