Mount Opuk: description and photo

Mount Opuk: description and photo
Mount Opuk: description and photo
Anonim

Crimean mountain Opuk one of the most amazing places on the Kerch Peninsula. It is a natural reserve with not only a rich flora and fauna, but also archaeological sites.

Location and description of the mountain

Mount Opuk in Crimea is located in the south of the Kerch Peninsula. Its height is 183 meters. The southern slope is covered with rocks, steep. And since the mountain is located on the Black Sea coast, it constantly experiences the influence of the surf. Opuk is a sheet-like upland consisting of reef limestones. At the top of the mountain there are deep and wide crevices of tectonic origin, the depth of which reaches up to 20 meters. As a result, a huge natural staircase was formed on Opuk.

Rocks come to the surface, forming long white ridges. The southern slope has several picturesque grottoes. There are wells with fresh water. These are the only sources of fresh water in the Opuk Reserve. Mount Opuk is surrounded by steppe. But it differs from others with its unique landscapes, vegetation, wildlife and historical monuments.

mountain opuk

Next to the sea there are four rocks-islands, which are called Ships. Previously they were connectedmountain, forming a large ridge. Sedimentary rocks of the mountain have durable limestone. This delays the destruction of the southern slope and the rocks of the Ships.

Koyash lake

Mount Opuk has its own small lake at the foot. It also has a second name - Koyashskoe. It is small, only 5 square kilometers. Located at the foot of Opuk. The depth of the lake is only one meter. Has no access to the sea. This is prevented by a hundred-meter embankment. When the shallowing of the reservoir begins, the southwestern part of the lake is separated by a small spit. The water is mostly s alty, but there are also desalinated areas where vegetation grows.

The lake is replenished from artesian sources and due to precipitation. Lake Opuk looks beautiful from the top of the mountain. The shores, white with s alt, frame the pink waters of the reservoir. Dunaliella algae and Artemia crustaceans that live in the lake give this shade.

mountain opuk in crimea

Ancient Kimmerik

Between Lake Koyash and Mount Opuk in the 5th century BC Asia Minor colonists built the city of Kimmerik. In ancient times, it was one of the coastal fortresses that guarded the ports and the coast from ferocious nomads. The walls were built very thick, stone. The colonists took the material from the quarries, which have survived to this day.

In the 3rd century A.D. e. the city was completely destroyed by the Goths. And came to a standstill. The excavations of Kimmerik began in Soviet times. Fragments of dwellings and city walls were found. And there was a lighthouse on the shore. Until now, ancient wells have been preserved on the territory of the city, inthat have water.

Opuk Nature Reserve

Among the sights of the Black Sea coast there is Opuksky Nature Reserve (Kerch). Mount Opuk is located on its territory. The area of ​​the reserve is 1592 hectares. It was created mainly because of the unique species of birds that live on Mount Opuk. But not only they are protected by the reserve.

kerch mountain opuk

Animals and flora of Mount Opuk

Opuk rightly boasts of its unique wildlife. Only here the pink starlings live and nest. Nowhere else in the Crimea these birds can not be found. In recent years, due to the fact that the territory of Opuk has been declared a protected area, the number of pink starlings has increased markedly.

A colony of bats lives in mountain caves - pointed-eared bats. Of the relatives of bats and horseshoe bats, you can see much less often. The Black Sea salmon and Atlantic sturgeon live in the sea. In addition to pink starlings, another 60 species of birds nest on Opuk. There are also many predators.

On the mountain slopes mainly rose hips, elder, blackthorn, buckthorn, ephedra and kermek grow. The surroundings are covered with grassy vegetation. There are many flowers in spring: tulips, carnations, poppies and others. Flaxseed and bedstraw grow on the sandy lake shores. Of the plants, 16 species are listed in the Red Book. For example, several types of feather grass, katrans, coastal carrot and others.

mountain opuk in kerch

Mount Opuk: The Karadag Monster

For the past few centuries, the world has been disturbed by the legend of an unknown and unusual beast living in the coastal waters of the mountainOpuk. There were even eyewitness accounts. An animal unknown to science was described as a six-meter monster with a large head. Eyewitnesses claimed that it was a snake with fins, large brow ridges and huge yellow eyes.

True, according to the descriptions, the head of the beast resembled a hare for some, a horse for others, and giraffe horns for some. As indirect evidence of the existence of the monster, only dolphins, which were found on the shore with lacerated wounds on their stomachs, could come up.

But, as it turned out, not an unknown animal lives in the coastal waters of Mount Opuk, but a rare gray seal. And very large. This became known thanks to a video recording of one of the drivers, who decided to reveal the secret of the Opuk monster. Thanks to the shooting, it became known that the eyes of the seal really resemble those of a snake, and the movements are smooth, fast and gliding.

Archaeological sites

The stele with runic signs is the last unique archaeological find on Mount Opuk. Found in recent years by archaeologists. The stele was made of stony limestone. And the technique is unique. Previously, all such runes found in the world were cut into stone, and Opukskaya was carved. The stele is dated to the 4th century BC. e., no stelae of this period have yet been found in archeology.

The location of the stele with runes is also surprising, since excavations in the area of ​​Mount Opuk have been going on for a long time, but such a relic was found for the first time. No analogues were found in Crimea at all. The inscription is traditional. On the stele there are four runes with the sign of the sun above them. Scientists suggest that this is onlypart of the composition. This version is supported by a groove found on the side of the stele.

excavations near Mount Opuk

Archaeologists suggest that the stone belonged to the mysterious Heruli (warriors-magicians). And they used the stele for their rites. The Heruli once lived on Mount Opuk. Here was their sanctuary. Archaeologists suggest that the stele is the guardian stone of the mountain. After the discovery of a unique stone with runes, it was transferred to the Simferopol Museum for storage.

Mountain Opuk has another secret. Scuba divers found the remains of a sunken ship 17 km from the coast. It is pressed down by ancient plates, which are not yet possible to lift. But you can dive to the bottom and see the ship underwater.

Rocks Ships

Mount Opuk in Kerch is famous for its amazing rocks Ships. They are created by nature itself, without human participation. There are four such rocks. It is located in the sea at a distance of 4 kilometers from the coast. The highest rock is Elken-Kaya. Its height above the water surface is 20 meters.

In 1941, a signal lamp was installed on top of this rock, which served as a beacon for the Red Army paratroopers. The sailors at that time performed a heroic feat. And in memory of these people, a memorial was erected on the mountain. You can book a boat trip to the Ship Rocks.

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