Vinson - massif of Antarctica. Description, photo

Vinson - massif of Antarctica. Description, photo
Vinson - massif of Antarctica. Description, photo
Anonim

Covered with eternal ice and at first glance so impregnable, the sixth continent of the planet was the last to be discovered. Despite the fact that James Cook was the first to cross the Antarctic Circle back in January 1773, Antarctica is still not fully explored.

Here, like any other continent, there are "oases" with vegetation, the ocean and even Mount Vinson (78.5833° S, 85.4167° W).

History of Antarctica

As an independent continent, it was discovered in 1820 by Thaddeus Bellingshausen, ahead of two other polar explorers - Nathaniel Palmer by 10 months and Edward Bransfield by 3 days.

Bellingshausen and his colleague Mikhail Lazarev did not reach Antarctica only 32 km. The first person to set foot on this earth is considered to be John Davis, who arrived on the continent on February 7, 1821. The first exploratory expedition was organized by the United States Navy in 1839. As a result, it was announced that it was shediscovered Antarctica west of the Balleny Islands, and the land area found by its participants was later named Wilkes Land in honor of the expedition leader. The next polar explorer, James Clark Ross, discovered the island in 1841, which received his name.

vinson array

More attention was paid to Antarctica and its study in the 20th century. The century began with the conquest of the South Pole by Roald Amundsen in 1911. In 1912, his example was followed by Robert Scott, whose expedition was completely lost on the way back to the mainland.

In 1928, the first flight to Antarctica was made by pilot George Hubert Wilkins, which was considered a real feat, given the level of development of aviation at that time. A foreign record haunted many aviators, but only Richard Baird managed to fly over the South Pole next year.

In the post-war years, a full-scale expedition was founded and carried out again by the Americans from 1945 to 1957, as a result of which the largest station-settlement McMurdo was founded. Soviet polar explorers founded the first village of Mirny in 1956 with the help of the crews of two ships - the Ob and the Lena. Gradually, thanks to scientists from different countries living and working in the harsh conditions of permafrost, it was possible to discover and fix on the map new bays, islands and capes of the cold mainland. For example, the mountains of Antarctica until the middle of the 20th century were assumed only theoretically. Evidence of their existence was provided in 1958 when they were discovered by a pilot making his flight across the mainland.

These courageous people made upa complete description of Antarctica, included in the textbooks of geography and the scientific work of modern polar explorers.

Features of Antarctica

This continent covers an area of ​​13,975 thousand km2, part of which is ice shelves. There are no permanent inhabitants here, not only because the harsh climate suits only penguins, but also because this is the only continent that does not belong to any countries, but is the property of all mankind.

According to the treaty signed in 1961 by the leading countries, the entire terrestrial space located south of 60 degrees S. sh., is free from the placement of any type of weapon and is suitable exclusively for scientific research. Although Antarctica is rich in minerals, mining is also prohibited.

This is the highest continent on the planet, on average it rises 2040 meters above sea level, and at its highest point - Vinson (an array in the Ellsworth Mountains) reaches 4892 meters.

seven peaks

In this place, 99% is occupied by ice, and only a small part of the space belongs to "oases" where mosses, ferns, lichens and mushrooms grow. Penguins and seals also live here.

No one is able to withstand winter cold down to -89 degrees (in the eastern part of the mainland in the area of ​​the Russian Vostok station). The average temperature in the winter months in the rest of the territory reaches -70 degrees, and in summer - from -30 to -50. There is almost a “resort” on the coast, since the temperature here in winter ranges from -8 to -35 degrees, while in summer it ranges from 0 to +5. DescriptionAntarctica, with its hurricane winds and frosts, makes the mainland a place extremely inhospitable for travelers.

The world's greatest peaks: Everest and Aconcagua

Mountains of the planet are not only its greatness and beauty, but also the history of the formation of continents. There are 6 continents and 7 greatest peaks on earth, which were conquered, each in its own time, by daredevils, whose courage inspires people to repeat their feat.

The highest mountain in the world - Everest (Asia), rises above sea level at 8848 m. Its conquest is like an exam for aptitude for climbers. Beginners do not conquer it, here even experienced climbers risk dying, this mountain is so harsh and impregnable.

mountain system

About 50 expeditions from different countries tried to climb the dangerous peak, but succeeded on May 29, 1953 by New Zealander Edmund Hillary. After him, Everest was conquered from its various sides not only by men, but also by women, the first of which was a Japanese climber in 1976.

Aconcagua is the highest extinct volcano in the world, located in South America. The height of this Argentine "skyscraper" is 6962 meters. The mountain arose in connection with the collision of two tectonic plates - Nazca and South American. One can only guess what cataclysms accompanied such grandiose processes millions of years ago. This peak is suitable for beginners, as it is not considered difficult from a climber's point of view. Even children conquered him.

Mount McKinley

The seven peaks of the world are the greatest mountains that are the mosthigh on one of the continents of the planet. McKinley is the highest point in Alaska, rising above the ground at 6194 m. At one time it was the highest peak of the Russian Empire, which was simply called Big Mountain. After the sale of this territory to America, it is the largest in North America.

From 1917 to 2015, the mountain bore the name of one of the US presidents, McKinley, but the original name Denali was returned to it, which in translation from the Athabaskan language (an Indian tribe) meant the Great Peak. It was first conquered in 1906 by Frederick Cook, who was soon accused of falsifying this ascent. To this day, climbers argue whether such a long ascent took place.

Kilimanjaro

The famous African mountain is also included in the "Seven Summits of the World" category. Located in Tanzania, it makes an indelible impression on all travelers. Seeing its snow cap in the middle of the hot savanna used to be amazing, but today many scientists are sounding the alarm, as the age-old ice is inexorably melting due to the changing climate.

mountains of antarctica

Mount Kilimanjaro, which previously adorned the neighborhood with its snow-white peak, today has lost 80% of its ice cover. For the first time, these 5895 meters above sea level were conquered by Hans Meyer back in 1889. For a beginner equipped with modern climbing equipment, this peak is not difficult, although the ascent usually takes longer due to problems with acclimatization.

Elbrus

This mountain is familiar even to those who do not havenothing to do with climbing. This is the highest peak in Europe. It is located on the border between Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia. This is a mountain system in the Main Caucasian Range. For the first time, its height of 5642 m was conquered by a Russian scientific expedition in 1829. It included a physicist, zoologist, botanist, traveler and artist, who not only climbed, but also sketched and studied the vegetation and structure of the mountain.

Today there is a well-developed tourist infrastructure with basic adaptation camps, and the mountain itself is a place of pilgrimage not only for climbers, but also for amateur rock climbers who have not yet conquered a single peak.

description of antarctica

Besides the conquerors of the peaks, Elbrus attracts skiers, for whom routes of varying difficulty are organized here and slalom competitions are held annually. A well-organized infrastructure puts the tourist bases open here on a par with European ski resorts.

Punchak Jaya

Australia also has its own mountain system, the highest point of which is Punchak Jaya (4884 m). Mount Jaya is famous for being the highest mountain on the island. Some scientists claim that the highest point in Oceania has a height of 5030 m.

For the whole world the mountain was discovered by the Dutchman Jan Carstens in 1623. This explorer was ridiculed by the scientific community for claiming to have seen a glacier in the tropics at the equator. The mountain was later given its name, which lasted until 1965.

Althoughit happened so long ago, for the first time it was conquered by Austrian climbers in 1962. The returned original name, translated from Indonesian, sounds like Victory Peak.

Vinson array

Mountains of Antarctica are a continuous cover of ice. This is probably why they could not be discovered for so long, but only theoretically calculated that they are on this continent. It is the ice that is the biggest obstacle when climbing them.

vinson array on the map

Their highest point is Vinson - an array 21 km long and 13 km wide. It takes real courage and professionalism to conquer such a difficult peak. The first measurement of the mountains of Antarctica was made incorrectly (5140 m). It was possible to compile a reliable value only in 1980, when Soviet climbers climbed Vinson (massif) and set a flag there. The result of their measurement was 4892 meters.

Conquest of the ice mountains

If you look at the Vinson massif on the map, you can see that it is only 1200 km from the South Pole. Those who have been to its summit say that it offers a stunningly beautiful view of the ice, illuminated by the bright sun.

array vinson coordinates

This is not only the largest glacier in the world, but also the most difficult mountain to conquer. The Vinson massif is immersed in the polar night for half a year, so the “summer” time from November to January is suitable for conquering, when the temperature rises to 30 degrees below zero. In summer, the sky above the summit is completely cloudless and the sun shines around the clock.

Despite somewarming air, strong winds and ice melted from the hot sun often interfere with climbing.

Antarctica today

Today there are 37 scientific stations from different countries in Antarctica. Scientists study the state of ice, changes in its chemical composition and the rate of melting. Biologists and zoologists study species that can survive in the harsh conditions of permafrost.

In addition to scientific expeditions, tours of extreme climbing Vinson are organized by travel agencies for daredevils. The massif has become quite a popular route and is a hit with climbers.

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