- History of the country
- Geographic location
- Mineral resources
- Animal world
- Business activities
- Political structure
- Relations with the Russian Federation
There are two states in Africa, in the full name of which appears the name of the Congo River. Their full names are: Republic of the Congo (capital of Brazzaville), Democratic Republic of the Congo (capital of Kinshasa). The article will focus on the second state, which is abbreviated as the DRC.
Having unlimited resources in the form of water, forests, minerals, it has an underdeveloped economy and belongs to the extremely unstable states of the world.
- Area - 2 million 345 thousand km².
- Population - 75507000 people (as of 2013).
- The official language is French, and four more languages have the status of national languages (Chiluba, Huahili, Kikongo, Lingala).
- The form of government is a mixed republic.
- The currency is the Congolese franc, which is equal to 100 centimes.
History of the country
The name of the state is associated with the empire that existed in the late 14th - early 19th century. It was created by a nation that still exists - "bakongo", which is translatedmeans "people of the Kongo", that is, "people-hunters".
Not so long ago, the DRC was called Zaire, which means "river" in translation. This is due to the largest river system in Africa, the Congo.
The most ancient tribes here were the Pygmies. Then came the Bakongo, who brought agriculture. By the 15th century, the Portuguese appeared on the lands, and the period of the slave trade began. Congolese slaves were used on the plantations of America. For a long time it was the main income of the Congo.
At the end of the 19th century, the Belgians settled in the country, who in 1908 made their colony out of the Congo. The country gained independence in 1960. This was due to the activities of Patrice Lumumba.
From 1960 to 1971, the state was called the Republic of the Congo, from 1971 to 1997 - Zaire, from 1997 to the present - DRC.
The state is located in the center of the mainland, it is crossed by the equator. There is a small outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is 37 km.
The country is rich in water resources in the form of rivers, lakes, swamps. Its main natural asset is the energy of rivers. It is located in the zone of the following climatic zones: equatorial, subequatorial. The African Rift limits the territory of the DRC from the east side.
The country is rich in many minerals. First of all, it is copper, cob alt, iron ore, gold, silver, diamonds, oil, tin, manganese, zinc, uranium. Today, special attention is paid to large reserves of columbitetantalite.
When processed, tantalite is the main component of capacitors. They, in turn, are an indispensable part of most modern appliances.
Tantalite capacitors are used for:
- mobile phones;
- computer processors;
- jet engines;
- night vision devices;
- audio and video equipment.
With the development of mobile technology in the country began tantalite fever. Prior to this, the largest mines were in Australia, Brazil and Canada. The discovery of significant reserves of tantalite has led to the fact that Rwanda and Uganda are fighting for these territories. Since the proceeds from its sale are greater than from diamonds, military and political clashes between the three countries do not stop.
Tantalite mining does not stop. It is smuggled into Europe, sold on the black market, and processed into modern devices.
Due to its vast territory, the presence of a large number of rivers and lakes, having a significant forest area, the Democratic Republic of the Congo boasts a significant diversity of fauna.
Elephant, lion, chimpanzee, giraffe, zebra, earthwolf, hippo
Crocodile, mamba snake
Flamingo, parrot, sunbird, pelican, heron, lapwing
Tsetse fly, malarial mosquito and many others
The Republic of the Congo is the largest African country in terms of population. It is constantly growing due to the high birth rate. At the same time, the average life expectancy does not exceed 55 years.
The state contains many nationalities. According to some estimates, there are more than 200 peoples and ethnic groups living in it. They speak 700 dialects.
By religion, about 70% of the population are Christians, which are divided into Catholics and Protestants. Traditional African beliefs, as well as Islam, are also important.
Most of the population lives in the valleys of rivers, lakes, and also near the capital. The city of Kinshasa is huge and occupies an important place in the economic life of the whole country.
The economic development of the country, although it has become better than on the threshold of the 21st century, remains low. Most of the population is engaged in agriculture and mining.
Grow a large number of crops that are exported. Among them are bananas, palm trees, corn, cocoa, coffee, rice, rubber.
Practically the entire manufacturing industry is concentrated in Kinshasa. Therefore, the capital is of great importance. Democratic RepublicCongo does not produce finished products, limiting itself to raw materials that are sold to European and American countries.
Today, the People's Republic of the Congo has a presidential stable system of government. Since 2006, there has been a new constitution that has retained the bicameral system in parliament. At the same time, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, whose flag was updated, received a mixed form of government.
The President shares executive power with the Prime Minister. The regions have expanded their powers with the ability to elect governors as heads of regional governments.
Since 2007, the current president is Joseph Kabila. His party won the most seats in Parliament in the elections.
Relations with the Russian Federation
Diplomatic relations between countries have existed since 1960. Then they were called the Republic of the Congo and the USSR. In 1992, the then Zaire recognized the successor to the USSR in the Russian Federation. The following agreements were adopted between states at different times:
- About Air Service (1974).
- On Trade (1976).
- On economic, scientific, technical, cultural cooperation (1976).
- On maritime navigation (1976).
- On cultural cooperation (1983).
Today, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, whose embassy is in Moscow, maintains official relations with the Russian Federation. Agreements have been reached on many issues. Russian companiesopen subsidiaries in the DRC.
Embassy address in Moscow: Leninsky Prospekt, 148, office 25-26.
In addition, there is a consulate of the DRC in Yekaterinburg. It is located on Gogol street, house 15.