- What is the UN?
- History of the creation of the organization
- Content of the UN Charter
- Working principleUN
- UN Security Council
- How does this body function?
- Historical digression
- Cooperation with other organizations
- Instruments of the Security Council
- Monitoring the imposition of sanctions
- The Rules of the Charter regarding the Council
Among the most influential organizations in the world, the UN is always mentioned. Knowledge of the principles of its work is important for any person who wants to keep abreast of world political, social and economic events. What is the history of this institution and who are the participants?
What is the UN?
The United Nations is called a kind of center for solving the problems of mankind. Thirty other agencies operate within the UN. Their collective work is aimed at ensuring that human rights are respected throughout the planet, poverty is reduced, and there is also a constant fight against diseases and environmental problems. The organization can intervene in the politics of any state if its course does not comply with generally accepted moral standards. Sometimes UN Security Council resolutions and various sanctions against such countries can be extremely strong.
History of the creation of the organization
The emergence of the UN occurred for a number of military, political and economic reasons. Humanity has come to realize that an endless series of wars undermines the prosperity of all, which means that measures must be taken to ensurepeaceful conditions that guarantee prosperity and progress. The first steps towards the creation of the organization were taken in 1941, when the Atlantic Charter was founded and the Declaration was signed by the government of the USSR. At that time, the leaders of the largest countries managed to formulate the main task, which was to find a way to peaceful international relations. The following year, in Washington, twenty-six states participating in the anti-Hitler coalition signed the Declaration of the United Nations. The name of this document will form the basis of the name of the organization in the future. In 1945, at a conference in which the USSR, the USA, China and Great Britain took part, a final document was created, which later became the UN Charter. June 26 - the date of signing this agreement - is considered the day of the united nations.
Content of the UN Charter
This document is the embodiment of the democratic ideals of humanity. It formulates human rights, affirms the dignity and value of every life, the equality of women and men, the equality of different peoples. According to the Charter, the purpose of the UN is to maintain world peace and settle all kinds of conflicts and disputes. Each member of the organization is considered equal to the others and is obliged to conscientiously fulfill all the obligations assumed. No country has the right to threaten others or use force. The UN has the right to intervene in hostilities within any state. The Charter also emphasizes the openness of the organization. Any peaceful country can become a member.
This organization does not represent the government of any country and cannot legislate. Among its powers is the provision of funds that help resolve international conflicts, as well as the development of political issues. Each country that is a member of the organization can express its opinion. The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council, and, finally, the Secretariat. All of them are in New York. The International Court of Human Rights is located in Europe, more specifically, in the Dutch city of The Hague.
UN Security Council
In the light of constant military conflicts and unrelenting tension between some countries, this body is of particular importance. The UN Security Council includes fifteen countries. It is worth noting that ten of them are periodically elected according to a certain procedure. Only five countries are permanent members of the UN Security Council: Russia, Great Britain, China, the United States and France. For an organization to make a decision, at least nine members must vote for it. Most often, meetings result in resolutions. During the existence of the Council, more than 1300 of them have been adopted.
How does this body function?
During its existence, the UN Security Council has acquired a certain number of methods and forms of influence on the situation in the world. The Authority may express to the Statecondemnation if the country's actions are not in accordance with the Charter. In the recent past, members of the UN Security Council have been extremely dissatisfied with the policies of South Africa. The state has been repeatedly condemned for carrying out apartheid in the country. Another situation in Africa in which the organization interfered was the military actions of Pretoria against other countries. Numerous resolutions have been created in the UN on this score. Most often, an appeal to the state involves the cessation of hostilities, the demand for the withdrawal of troops. At the moment, the UN Security Council is most concerned about Ukraine. All possibilities of the organization are aimed at resolving the conflict situation and reconciliation of the parties. The same functions were already used during the resolution of the Palestinian issues and during the period of hostilities in the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
In 1948, the UN Security Council developed such a settlement method as the use of groups of observers and military observation missions. They were supposed to control how the state to which the resolutions were sent complies with the requirements for a cessation of hostilities and a truce. Until 1973, only permanent members of the UN Security Council from among Western countries sent such observers. After this year, Soviet officers began to enter the mission. For the first time they were sent to Palestine. Many monitoring bodies are still monitoring the situation in the Middle East. In addition, the permanent members of the UN Security Council form missions that operate in Lebanon, India, Pakistan, Uganda, Rwanda,El Salvador, Tajikistan and other countries.
Cooperation with other organizations
The activity of the Council is constantly accompanied by collective work with regional bodies. Cooperation can be of the most diverse nature, including regular consultations, diplomatic support, peacekeeping, observation missions. The meeting of the UN Security Council can be held jointly with the OSCE, as happened during the conflicts in Albania. The organization is also teaming up with environmental groups to manage the situation in the west of the African continent. During the armed conflict in Georgia, the UN teamed up with the CIS peacekeeping force.
In Haiti, the Council cooperated with the OAS in the framework of an international civilian mission.
Instruments of the Security Council
The system for settling world conflicts is constantly being improved and modernized. Recently, a method has been developed for controlling nuclear and environmental threats, warning about hotbeds of tension, mass emigration, natural disasters, famine and epidemics. Information in each of these areas is constantly analyzed by specialists in these areas, who determine how great the danger is. If its scale is truly alarming, the President of the UN Security Council will be notified of the situation. After that, decisions on possible actions and measures will be taken. Other UN bodies will be involved as needed. ATThe priority of the organization is preventive diplomacy. All instruments of a political, legal and diplomatic nature are aimed at preventing disagreements. The Security Council actively contributes to the reconciliation of the parties, the establishment of peace and other preventive actions. The most commonly used instrument is the peacekeeping operation. More than fifty such events have been held during the existence of the UN. PKO is understood as a set of actions of impartial military, police and civilian personnel aimed at stabilizing the situation.
Monitoring the imposition of sanctions
The Security Council includes several subsidiary bodies. They exist to monitor UN sanctions. Such bodies include the Board of Governors of the Compensation Commission, the Special Commission on the Situation between Iraq and Kuwait, the Committees in Yugoslavia, Libya, Somalia, Angola, Rwanda, Haiti, Liberia, Sierra Lion and Sudan. For example, in Southern Rhodesia, careful control of the economic situation led to the removal of the racist government and the return of independence to the citizens of Zimbabwe. In 1980 the country became a member of the UN. The effectiveness of control was also manifested in South Africa, Angola and Haiti. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that in some cases the sanctions had a number of negative consequences. For neighboring states, the measures taken by the UN resulted in material and financial damage. However, without intervention, the situation would have led to much more serious consequences for the whole world, thereforesome costs are well worth it.
The Rules of the Charter regarding the Council
Despite the fact that sometimes the consequences can be quite controversial, this UN body must function without interruption. This is decided by the Charter. According to him, the organization is obliged to make decisions as quickly and efficiently as possible. Each member of the Security Council should be constantly in touch with the UN for the immediate performance of their functions in an emergency. The interval between meetings of the body should not be more than two weeks. Sometimes this rule is not observed in practice. On average, the Security Council meets in formal session about seventy-seven times a year.