- Origin of the street name
- Renaming a street
- Main memorable dates in the fate of the street
- How to get to Bolshaya Lubyanka Street
Bolshaya Lubyanka Street runs from Lubyanskaya Square to Sretensky Gate Square. Its history is rich in events and spans several centuries.
Origin of the street name
There are several versions of the origin of the Lubyanka toponym.
Name may have happened:
- from the tract, the mention of which is found in chronicles in the 15th century;
- from the word "bast" - the inner part of the bark of trees and shrubs;
- from the B altic root "bast" - to clean, peel;
- from Novgorod's Lubyanitsa street: during the time of the Novgorodians' migration to Moscow, they renamed part of the then-called Sretenka street into Lubyanka.
Renaming a street
In Moscow, st. Bolshaya Lubyanka changed its name more than once, but its original name was Sretenka, which it received in the 14th century, in honor of the “meeting” of Muscovites with the icon of Our Lady of Vladimir. In those days, Moscow could have been invaded by Tamerlane's troops, and in order to protect the city from this disaster, an icon was brought. Muscovites worshiped (meeting) the icon near the church in the name of Mary of Egypt, which was located on the territory of modern Lubyanka Street. Moscow managed to avoid the raid of Tamerlane, and on the site of the meeting was builtSretensky Monastery, and the whole street is named after this event.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the street began to be called Bolshaya Lubyanka, and in 1926 it was renamed Dzerzhinsky Street. In 1991, it was returned to its former name - Bolshaya Lubyanka.
Main memorable dates in the fate of the street
From the moment the Sretensky Monastery was founded, believers have been in procession along the street and square. The monastery and temples of Sretenskaya Street were very revered among the believers of Moscow and pilgrims from other cities.
In 1611, fierce battles took place on the territory of the street, the most severe and bloody of them was near the Church of the Introduction to the Church of the Most Holy Theotokos opposite the estates of Prince Pozharsky. Pozharsky himself led the attack and was badly wounded.
In 1662, the "copper riot" began on this street, a turmoil that swept the whole of Moscow.
The famous path of Lomonosov M.V. from Kholmogory to Moscow (in 1731) walked along Sretenka Street.
In 1748, there was a very strong fire on Lubyanka, which burned about 1200 houses, 26 churches and killed about 100 people.
The Moscow fires of 1812 did not affect the street.
In the 19th century, the street became the main trading point of the city, and by the end of the century it was completely filled with insurance companies and tenement houses.
The street suffered great losses in the 20th century. After the October Revolution, churches in the name of Mary of Egypt and the Entry into the Church of the Most Holy Theotokos were completely destroyed. Sretensky monastery lostmost of its buildings and temples, was abolished, returned to the church only in 1991.
Practically the entire building at the beginning of the street was destroyed, where there were houses of church ministers, a confectionery, optical, jewelry, hunting and watch stores, etc.
Since 1920, all buildings on the even side of the street have been occupied by state security agencies. In the 1930s, large-scale construction began on a complex of existing and currently FSB buildings, which occupy an entire block. In 1979, the FSB building was built on the odd side of the street.
On the rest of Bolshaya Lubyanka Street, buildings of the 17th-18th centuries and the end of the 19th century have been preserved. There is a square on the street, formed on the site of the demolished Church of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is called Vorovsky Square, there is also a monument to V.V. Vorovsky (USSR ambassador to the Scandinavian countries, killed by the White Guards in 1923).
Bolshaya Lubyanka Street in Moscow is the place where the buildings of the NKVD and noble estates, scientific institutions and monastic buildings are closely intertwined. This is a place where almost every house is a landmark with its own destiny.
It was built in 1397, and in 1930 most of its buildings were destroyed to the ground. In those buildings that have survived, a school was located in Soviet times. The monastery was returned to the church only in 1991. At present, it is an active male monastery, onon the territory of which a cross was erected in honor of the heroes of the war of 1812 and the victims of the execution by the NKVD in the 30s and 40s. The relics of the great Orthodox saints Seraphim of Sarov, Nicholas the Wonderworker, Mary of Egypt are kept in the church.
The building of the Federal Security Service was built back in 1898, one of the most beautiful and most sinister buildings in Moscow. Initially, the building was a tenement house for an insurance agency, but during the revolution, the premises were occupied by the Cheka. Later, precisely because of the location of their headquarters on Lubyanka, the street became associated with the Chekist structures and caused fear among Muscovites. Currently, the building does not look as sinister as before, but legends and rumors still circulate around it.
This building housed the stone chambers of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky in the 16th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, the main house was rebuilt to house the Mint.
In 1811 Count F. Rostopchin became the owner of the estate.
In 1843, the mansion was bought by Count V. Orlov-Denisov (hero of the war of 1812), who rebuilt the building by adding two outbuildings.
Cathedral of the Presentation of the Icon of the Mother of God of Vladimir
The cathedral was built in the 17th century on the site of a temple (built in 1397). The cathedral was erected at the expense of Tsar Fedor III in honor of the salvation of Moscow from the raid of Tamerlane's troops.
City estate of architect V.I. Chagin
The building was built in 1892 and modified according to the project of the new owner - Russian and Soviet architect V. B.Chagin. The house has luxurious Venetian windows on the 1st floor, and arched windows on the 2nd. The building currently houses a restaurant and office space. The object belongs to the regional architectural monuments.
Urban estate of E. B. Rakitina - V. P. Golitsin
The building was built in the 18th century as the city estate of the Rakitins, in 1856 V.P. Golitsyn became the owner of the estate, in 1866 - P.L. Carloni, and in 1880 the Land Bank began to own the house. Yu. V. Andropov was born here in 1914.
New FSB building
The new house designed by Paul and Makarevich was built in 1983. Previously, on the territory of the headquarters building were the possessions of Prince Volkonsky, then Khilkovs, Golitsyns. The new building forms a square with outbuildings, where the entire leadership of the Russian FSB is located.
In the autumn of 1990, a memorial sign to the victims of political repressions was erected on Lubyanka Square. The boulder was brought from the Solovetsky Islands, where a special purpose camp was located and where political prisoners were kept.
Former Lukhmanov's house
The building was built in 1826 by order of the merchant Lukhmanov. During the years of the revolution, the building was the headquarters of the Cheka, until 1920 F. E. Dzerzhinsky sat here. At the moment - a monument of culture.
How to get to Bolshaya Lubyanka Street
Moskovskaya Street stretches from southwest to northeast, between Lubyanskaya Square and Sretenka Street. You can get to Bolshaya Lubyanka street by metro, get off at the station "Lubyanka"or "Kuznetsky Most".