- The origins of the concept
- Definition of concept
- History of archives in our country
- What are municipal archives?
Archival systems are a section of records management that involves organizing the storage of important papers. Let's consider in more detail what it is, and give examples of their organization.
The origins of the concept
Since ancient times, various states and countries could not exist without literature, writing and documents. This is interconnected with a number of concepts, such as intelligence, mentality, spirituality, which are of great importance in today's global world.
This was a fundamental factor in management and law, and in general contributed to the fact that it became necessary for people to take care of the storage and regulation, use and accounting of various documents in order to preserve them not only from a historical point of view, but also from a legal one. Therefore, the system of archiving, archival law includes all regulatory, methodological, personal, state, legislative and many other documents.
These various documents are necessary for citizens not only in their personal interests, but also in the interests of the state itself and the country as a whole. In order for the indicator of the development of the system of archival affairs and the archives themselves to increase, it is necessary to ensure the development of effective mechanisms andmethods of regulation in this area.
Definition of concept
The first archival systems were formed back in the 19th century. The reason for their creation was the interest in the world of antiquities, which arose in the middle of the 18th century and ended with the creation of an archive department under the office of Emperor Alexander Pavlovich.
The development of archives in our country is connected with the formation of a centralized Russian state. In acts and orders for the XVI-XVII centuries. there were large accumulations of archival materials, but at that time the documents had not yet become the main component of the current workflow. Such clerical work was based on the norms of traditions in Russia, customs and Russian law in general.
History of archives in our country
At the end of the XVIII-XIX centuries. new and first departmental archives appeared. And, of course, thanks to this, a whole network of judicial and administrative archives began to appear in cities, townships and counties. In the 19th century, throughout our country, they undertook the creation of registration archival commissions, which existed at the expense of donations from zemstvos, city dumas and individuals, but the state did not participate in this.
In 1720, February 28, Peter I established the General Regulations, which defines the various functions and tasks, structuring and operating procedures of the governing bodies. The regulation describes all office processes, it contained a whole chapter devoted to the archival storage of various documents and the creation of a coherentarchive systems. In Russia, after the revolution of 1917, archival legislation appeared.
In the USSR, the organization of archives under the executive committees began in 1920, that is, after the end of the civil war and the final establishment of Soviet power. An archives management committee was created, whose task was to develop a document in order to reorganize the archives. The fruit of the activities of the Soviet government in this area was the formation of the State Archive of the RSFSR. After that, all archival institutions merged into the Central Archive, and the local ones were subordinate to it.
The impetus for the development of archives was the regulatory legal and administrative acts adopted in 1926. Archival systems were then quite imperfect. The CEC sent a circular to all the executive committees, which stated that "the matter of preserving the archives has not yet been established, as a result of which archival materials are being destroyed and plundered." In this regard, it was proposed to urgently provide the archives with appropriate premises, allocate employees, and begin work on their collection. It was then that the first library archive systems were created.
Further, archiving actively developed, which led to the creation of a whole branch of science and professional activity. Today, archives are cultural institutions that store the necessary information in paper and digital form.
What are municipal archives?
This is a numerous and importantcomponent of the network of archival institutions of the Russian Federation. By 2012, the number of municipal archives in the country was more than two thousand. They ensure the safety of 25% of the documents of the Archival Fund of the Russian Federation.
Municipal archives store information about all important events in the history of a particular region. They are invaluable for scientists, as they can tell about rare and almost forgotten cultural phenomena, help uncover new facts in Russian history. Archiving systems in regional libraries are generally closed. Access to them is limited due to the value of the material.
Thus, the national archive system includes many elements. She has come a long way of creation, which was discussed in this article.