- Geographic features of Russia
- Mountains in Brief
- List of ranges of Russia
- Massifs of the Siberian northeast
- The mountain country of Verkhoyansk
- Severe south of Siberia: mountain expanse
- Stanovoi Ridge: a bridge between regions
- Far East: vast expanses
- Klyuchevskaya Sopka: the pearl of Kamchatka
- Caucasus under me…
- A little about Elbrus
- Legends of the Urals
“Here you don’t have a plain, here the climate is different” - the words of Vladimir Vysotsky, known to almost everyone, can become the epigraph of this topic. It will be about the mountains, the most beautiful of all natural reliefs. Not without reason, sung in the works of many poets, they attract tourists, climbers and people who want to immerse themselves in a unique, unlike anything microclimate. Looking at the physical map, you can see a lot of mountain ranges scattered around the globe. The Russian territory is also rich in them.
Geographic features of Russia
Russian mountains, like border guards, frame the southern and northeastern outskirts of the country, creating a unique and reliable shield for the plains. Only the mighty Ural boldly crosses the vast expanses of Russia, regardless of either borders or time. The bulk of the population lives in flat areas, seeing the mountains either on TV, or from time to time, getting out to relax in mountainous areas.
Mountains occupy less than half of the relief zones in Russia. And almost all the ranges of Russia are located in the South and Far East of the country.
Mountains in Brief
If you touch on the defining features by which you can find out exactly what is beforemountains are the observer, there are several characteristic moments:
- height over 200 meters above the foot;
- steep slopes;
- presence of peaks.
Mountains differ in origin. If there was a deformation of the earth's crust, then the resulting mountain is of a tectonic nature.
As a result of severe volcanic eruptions, ash and other particles accumulate to form mountains. Such formations are of volcanic origin, and there is always a crater on the top of such a mountain.
Elevations caused by erosion can also create mountains. Often several massifs of homogeneous origin accumulate in a single area. Then they are called mountain systems.
List of ranges of Russia
To find the fairy-tale realm, the heroes usually go "beyond the mountains and the seas". That's exactly where we're heading. The mountain ranges of Russia, excluding the majestic Urals, are located on the outskirts of the country. On its territory there are about 20 mountain ranges and more than 1 thousand known peaks, the highest of which is Elbrus. But there are places so remote and inaccessible that it is not possible to measure the height of some peaks. Conventionally, the ridges of Russia can be divided into six sections:
- Ural Mountains.
- Far East.
- South of Siberia.
- Northeast of Siberia.
The last three points include rather vast territories, where the largestmountain systems and ranges of Russia.
Massifs of the Siberian northeast
The north-eastern regions of Siberia are amazingly beautiful views. Young and ancient mountain systems, taiga regions, tundra - this is the relief and nature of this region. The highest point of the East Siberian Highlands, Mount Pobeda, reaches a height of 3 kilometers. It is also one of the highest among all the mountain systems of Eastern Siberia, which stretch for more than 14 kilometers. In addition to the indicated highlands, the massif includes the Verkhoyansk Range, the Byrranga Mountains and the Central Siberian Plateau.
Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks are common in the northeastern territories. Both ancient and modern glaciers are also found. The subarctic type of climate leads to the fact that some rivers freeze completely, that is, literally to the bottom.
The mountain country of Verkhoyansk
The Verkhoyansk Range on the map of Russia is one of the seven mountainous regions of the northeastern region. It is located on the territory of Yakutia. The system includes such largest ranges of Russia as Kharulakhsky, Orulgan and Suntar-Khayata. The climate of this region is harsh. Cold and low temperatures prevail here for 8-9 months in a row. In January, the average temperature drops to -40. The snow cover begins to melt in June, although spring arrives around mid-May. Summer is rather short and inhospitable, rarely warmer than 14 degrees. It is during this period that the lion's share of precipitation falls.
Due to difficult weatherconditions, the population in this area is rather insignificant, respectively, pastures and forests are poorly used. Mineral resources of the Verkhoyansk mountain system are gold and polymetallic ores. The Verkhoyansk Range on the map of Russia stretches for 1200 km from the Lena River to the Tompo, a tributary of the Aldan.
The local mountains beckon with special beauty. The ridge of Russia called Verkhoyansk is very similar in outline to the Alpine relief. Arctic calm prevails on the lonely cold peaks of the Verkhoyansk Range. A little lower, the frozen desert is replaced by a miserable tundra with its poor vegetation. Cedar dwarfs, dwarf birches, larches and shrubs grow on the slopes. There are also steppe inclusions.
Severe south of Siberia: mountain expanse
To the east of the Ural Mountains, many thousands of kilometers away, mountainous Siberia is located - a land of stunning purity and beauty. The ranges of Russia located in this area are famous all over the world:
- Mountains of Tuva.
- Baikal region.
- Stanovoi Ridge.
- Aldan Highlands.
Mountain systems and ranges of Russia, such as Altai, are very beautiful and look like an uneven vault. Lake Teletskoye is located in the center of the Altai Mountains. In some regions there are steppes, meadows, similar to alpine, linden groves. The highest point of Altai is Mount Belukha. Its height is over 4.5 kilometers.
Further on, Alatau adjoins the Altai Mountainsand Sayans. The mountain chain in these places expands significantly, reaching up to six hundred kilometers. The great Yenisei begins its journey in the Sayan Mountains. At first, the river was fast and capricious, but after the construction of hydroelectric facilities, it pacified its temper. These mountain systems adjoin the ranges of Russia, whose names are known to the initiates: the Tuva Mountains with the highest points of Mongun-Taiga, Sangi-Len, Tannu-Ola. The tops of the Sayano-Tuva mountains look like domes. Closer to the Mongolian border, small glaciers on the slopes give way to steppe regions.
Zeal guards of the deep Lake Baikal, the mountains of the Baikal region, like a precious frame, surround the purest reservoir. By the way, the lake owes its appearance to the high tectonic activity observed in this mountain range. Frequent earthquakes speak of the restless state of the earth's crust in this region. If sedimentary rocks did not regularly fill up the bottom of Lake Baikal, then its depth could reach 6 km.
Slightly to the east are the mountain ranges of Russia called Transbaikalia. Their feature is the greatest width of the mountain belt, reaching thousands of kilometers. The total length of Transbaikalia is about 4 thousand kilometers.
Stanovoi Ridge: a bridge between regions
Near the Pacific Ocean, the southern ranges connect with the Far East. And the connecting links in this chain are the Stanovoy Range of Russia, as well as the Aldan Plateau. The main massif of the Stanovoi Ridge is naked and deserted, with gorges overgrown with forest. Pyramids of mountains serve as a natural line between the Amur and Yakutia, and the peaks do not rise higher2 km. On the slopes and in the gorges of the Stanovoy Ridge, mainly coniferous trees grow. Wolves, goats and foxes are practically the only inhabitants of these places, with the exception of small groups of nomads: the Chukchi, Tungus and Yakuts.
Far East: vast expanses
The mountains of the Far East are very different and unpredictable. From the Dzhugdzhur ridge, located on the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk, they stretch across the territory of the Amur and Primorye to Sakhalin, Kamchatka and the Kuril ridge. Throughout its length, the relief is very variegated, interrupted by sea bays, valleys and lakes. On the harsh island of Sakhalin are the East Sakhalin and West Sakhalin mountains. Further, from Kamchatka to Japan, the Kuril ridge stretches, forming a characteristic island arc. The volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka stands apart on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka: the pearl of Kamchatka
This active volcano is the highest point of the peninsula. The height of the peak is almost 5 km, and to be precise, more than 4800 meters. Consequently, the volcano is recognized as the highest in Eurasia. Since the end of the 17th century, it has erupted 55 times, though without causing serious damage to nearby settlements. The Klyuchevskaya Sopka is 70 centuries old. You can look at the lifeless ashy slopes of Klyuchevskaya Sopka endlessly, as well as wander through the dense flower meadows at its foot.
Those who decide to climb to the top of the mountain should remember that volcanic gases will not allow you to stay on it for more than 10 minutes. Yes and bigheight also does not have the best effect on the human body. But even this time will be enough to enjoy the surrounding beauties from the height of the mountain. In any case, the impressions from the conquest of Klyuchevskaya Sopka will remain for life.
Caucasus under me…
The largest mountain range in Russia - the Greater Caucasus - is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The Caucasus Mountains are relatively young, but they are distinguished by constant growth. In a year, their peaks become closer to the sky by a few centimeters. The Greater Caucasus consists of not too high Black Mountains, low Sunzhensky and Tersky ridges, which do not even reach the mark of one kilometer. In the south you can see the high Side, Dividing and Main ridges. The pride of the Caucasus Mountains - the top of Elbrus - is located just on the territory of the Side Range.
The center of the Caucasus is prone to extensive avalanches and catastrophic rockfalls. But the climate in this part of the mountains is mild, subtropical, somewhat similar to the south of Europe. The eastern part of the Caucasus resembles the Central Asian meager relief. It is not for nothing that the state located there was called Dagestan, which means “mountain country” in translation.
But in general, the Caucasus is so beautiful that even the great Alexander Sergeevich sang it in his works.
A little about Elbrus
Speaking of the Caucasus, it is impossible not to mention the highest of European peaks - Elbrus. Or rather, two peaks, since the mountain has two peaks with a difference in height of about 20 meters. By the nature of the formation, Elbrus is an extinct volcano. Nearmillion years ago, at the time of its formation, layers of ash, dirt, piles of stones rushed along the slopes of the mountain at breakneck speed. All this gradually increased the height of the volcano.
Now the mountain formation has the honorary status of the highest ski mountain in the world. In addition, it was recently included in the list of seven Russian wonders. On the southern slopes of Elbrus, cable cars and places for comfortable accommodation of tourists are equipped.
Legends of the Urals
Speaking of Russian mountain ranges, one cannot help but think of the Ural Mountains. This is the pride of the country, the dividing line between west and east. The mountains stretch for a long 2000 km from north to south, from the Arctic Ocean to the Kazakh steppes. There is a legend that it was in these mountains that the unique civilization of the wise Aryans was born, in search of traces of which crowds of scientists and tourists go to the Urals. There are also paranormal zones there that may be of interest even to ufologists, since, according to rumors, aliens have been seen in the Ural wilds. This amazing place is located in the Taganay National Park. It is not known how true the stories of local residents are, but the fact that equipment failures occur in this area and strange visions visit adequate people is an indisputable fact.
The Urals even have their own Stonehenge. They say that this place has a powerful energy message. It relieves evil thoughts and worries.
Ancient Ural temples and monasteries invariably attract pilgrims from all over the world.
Also, the Ural Mountains are a tourist mecca, and at any time of the year. In summer - rafting on mountain rivers, horseback riding, trekking, and in winter - traditional skiing on snowy slopes. And in recent years, after the appearance of the Chelyabinsk meteorite in the earth's atmosphere, routes to the place of its fall have become popular.
Speleologists also have something to do in the Urals: cave complexes define a serious field for activity.
The ridges of Russia are very diverse and constitute a huge natural we alth of this diverse and ambiguous country. Most of the inhabitants of Russia live in flat areas, but the mountains invariably attract people with their wild pristine beauty.