Rare and endangered species of animals and plants

Rare and endangered species of animals and plants
Rare and endangered species of animals and plants
Anonim

Humanity is constantly evolving, new technologies and enterprises are emerging, cities are being rebuilt. Against this background, more and more endangered species of animals and plants appear. Nature is trying to compete with us and defend its place under the sun, but so far people are winning.

Red Book

The most complete data on the state of affairs in the world of flora and fauna are listed in the Red Book, which has been published since 1963. The book itself is not a legal document, but if any animal or plant gets into it, then automatically they fall under protection.

The book has colorful pages:

Black

These pages contain information about extinct species

Red

Disappearing or very rare

Yellow

If the view is rapidly shrinking

White

Species that have always been very scarce on the planet

Gray

Those animals andplants that are in hard-to-reach places on the earth and little studied

Green

Representatives of flora and fauna that managed to be protected from complete extinction

If the situation with a particular species changes, then it is transferred to another page. Therefore, I would like to believe that in the near future the entire book will consist of green pages.

African elephant

Current situation

Some scientists are sounding the alarm, endangered animal species are increasing almost exponentially, and we can already talk about the beginning of the sixth mass extinction of species on the planet. There have already been such periods on Earth, and they are characterized by the loss of more than ¾ of all species in a fairly short geological period of time. In just 540 million years, this has happened 5 times.

According to conservative estimates, about 40% of all living beings and crops on the planet are at risk. In the future, if conservation measures fail, the extinction of species will be in the millions.

Examples of endangered species

First on the list of endangered animals is the chimpanzee. The situation has worsened over the past 30 years when deforestation began. Poachers prey on the cubs, and the animals themselves are highly susceptible to human disease.

The Amur tiger has been at risk since the 1930s. According to some reports, at that time there were only about 40 individuals left. However, systematic securityactivities have increased the population to 530 individuals.

Third on the list is the African elephant. The extinction of the species is associated primarily with the human pursuit of ivory. As of 1970, there were about 400 thousand elephants in the world, and already in 2006 - only 10 thousand.

Galapagos sea lion is a resident of the Galapagos Islands and Isla de la Plata. To date, there are no more than 20 thousand individuals.

The population of the western gorilla is generally at a critical point. In just 20 years, from 1992 to 2012, the number of animals decreased by 45%.

Another endangered species is Grevy's zebra. To date, there are no more than 2.5 thousand individuals left in the world. Only the efforts of the Kenyan government managed to save these animals.

Orangutan - the population of the animal is at a critical point, the same with the Sumatran and Bornean subspecies. According to the most conservative estimates, depending on the subspecies, from 50% to 80% of individuals have disappeared over the past 60 years.

The number of black, Sumatran and Javan rhinos is at a critical level. Poaching does not stop because of the high price of the horns of these animals, Chinese medicine uses them as an aphrodisiac.

Endangered sifaka (lemur) and Rothschild's giraffe. There are very few giant pandas left, they can still be found in the wild in the mountains of central China. According to the latest estimates, there are no more than 1.6 thousand left.

The wild dog is represented by no more than 5 thousand animals, and this is no more than 100 packs. Them to this dayshoot uncontrollably and “take away” their habitual habitat.

Grizzlies have completely disappeared in Mexico, in Canada and the US their number is at a critical level. The main part of the representatives of this species lives on the territory of the Yellowstone National Park.

Rothschild giraffe

Vulnerable Species

Endangered species of animals listed in the Red Book, which are in the category - "Vulnerable":

  • behemoth;
  • king cobra;
  • collar sloth;
  • African lion;
  • Komodo dragon;
  • magellanic penguin;
  • polar bear;
  • humpback whale;
  • koala;
  • whale shark;
  • Galapagos tortoise;
  • cheetah.

It is clear that this is an incomplete list, but even this number already confirms the catastrophic situation.

Magellanic penguin

Disappearing vegetation

The top ten rare and endangered species of plants and animals are represented by the following representatives of the flora:

Western steppe orchid

This is a wetland plant with no more than 172 varieties today.

Rafflesia

This flower has no roots, but it is the largest on the planet, has a sharp and unpleasant odor. The weight of the plant can reach 13 kilograms, and the diameter of the flower is 70 centimeters. Growing in Borneo.

Astra Georgia

They grow mainly in the southeastern United States, and there are no more than 57 representatives of the species left.

Acalifa Viginsi

Grows in the Galapagos and needs urgent protection as it is on the brink of extinction

Texas wild rice

This plant used to grow in Texas, but is now on the verge of extinction due to falling water levels to a critical point

Zelaipodium Howelli

There are about 5 thousand copies on the planet, according to scientists, in 7 years there will not be a single copy left

Stenogin Canejoana

For a long time it was believed that this plant was no longer on the planet, but at the beginning of the century 1 specimen was discovered, and now it is bred and protected in the park of the island of Oahu

Mountain Golden Washita

There are no more than 130 plants

Enrubio

As of 1995, in Puerto Rico, where this shrub grows, no more than 150 species remained

Arizona Agave

Already in 1864, botanists sounded the alarm, at that time there were about 100 copies left. To date, even two subspecies that grow in the Arizona National Park have been preserved

Every day the ecological situation in the world is only getting worse, and the pages of the Red Book can geteven the most familiar plants for us, if people do not change the situation soon.

Stenogin Canejoana

Red Book of Russia

The first edition of the security book appeared in 1978. That year, an international assembly on nature protection was held on the territory of the USSR (Ashgabat). The publication consisted of two parts: The Red Book of Endangered Species:

  • animals;
  • plants.

The second edition appeared only in 1984, but it was already more voluminous, including fish and invertebrate representatives of the fauna.

In general, the following categories are distinguished:

0

Probably disappeared. That is, species that have not been seen over the past 50 years, if we are talking about Vertebrates, then over the past 100 years.

1

Endangered. The number of taxa is at a critical level.

2

Shrinking. That is, species that are rapidly decreasing in number.

3

Rare. Living or growing in small areas.

4

Indeterminate by status, that is, there is too little information about their number.

5

Recoverable, that is, taxa that have been subjected to a number of activities, and quite successful.

Last reissue

Many rare andendangered species of animals and plants were revised, there was a lot of controversy around the new edition. Many zoologists who could really defend their point of view were excluded from the discussion process. As a result, a number of very rare species of taxa were excluded from the list, and these are about 19 species of fish and mammals. They did not even include 23 species of animals that the commission had previously decided to include in the book. The public is sure that "high-ranking" hunters were lobbying for this issue.

Mammals

Endangered species of animals of the Red Book of Russia from the class of terrestrial vertebrates are divided into two classes:

  • first come;
  • real animals.

List of species categorized 1:

  1. Caucasian European mink. The total number today does not exceed 42 thousand individuals.
  2. Mednovsky blue fox. The number does not exceed 100 individuals.
  3. Bandaging. The number of taxa has not been established.
  4. Leopard. The most optimistic estimates confirm the figure at the level of 52 individuals.
  5. Snow leopard. There are no more than 150 animals left.
  6. B altic subspecies of the gray seal. About 5, 3 thousand individuals.
  7. High-browed bottlenose. No more than 50 thousand individuals around the planet.
  8. Hump, found only in the North Atlantic.
  9. Sakhalin musk deer. According to some reports, no more than 400 individuals remained.
  10. Common long-winged. There are no more than 7 thousand on the territory of our country.
Snow Leopard

Birds

Into the list of rare andendangered animal species included birds. These are bipedal terrestrial vertebrates, with modified front legs (wings) with which they fly.

Despite popular belief, birds are conservative animals, even when it comes to migratory species. All birds live in certain areas, and migratory birds return in the spring to the same place where they were last year.

The last birds listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation in 2016 are:

  • Bella, no more than 1000 birds.
  • Black crane. There are no more than 30 couples in Yakutia, about 50 couples in Primorye, and 300 families in the Khabarovsk Territory.
  • Japanese or Ussuri crane. There are no more than 500 birds left on the territory of Russia.
black crane

Pisces

These endangered species of animals in Russia constantly live in water, breathe with gills and move with the help of fins. For a long time, all the inhabitants of the water element were called fish, but over time, the classification was clarified, and some species were excluded from this category, for example, lancelet and hagfish.

In 2014, endangered species were the last to be protected:

  • Kilda cod. A narrowly distributed species of fish that lives only in a small relict lake Mogilnoye (Murmansk region). A distinctive feature of the reservoir is as many as three layers with different salinity of the water. On average, there are about 3 thousand individuals.
  • Common sculpin. Present in almost all waters of Russia, except for the Kola Peninsula. Relegated to the second category. This issmall fish, up to 12 centimeters in length. Gradually, the population is decreasing due to an increase in the level of pollution of all the country's waters.
common sculpin

Plants

Permanent and uncontrolled deforestation affects negatively not only animals, but also plants. Some species of flora have already disappeared forever.

Snowdrop angustifolia

At the beginning of last year, the list of endangered species of animals and plants was replenished with the following flowering and angiosperm representatives of the flora:

Bortkiewicz's Snowdrop

1 category

The plant prefers beech forests, with loose and neutral soil. No more than 20 thousand copies left

Narrow-leaved snowdrop

2 category

Grows exclusively in Russia, in Kabardino-Balkaria, in the Caucasus and in the southern regions. Grows on moist soils, in forests. No more than 20 thousand copies.

Low bow

3 category

Prefers steppes in the highlands. It is rather difficult to count the remaining number of specimens, as onions grow in hard-to-reach places.

Protection measures

The protection of rare and endangered species of animals and plants is based on several principles:

  • clearly established rules and regulations for the protection and rational use of wildlife;
  • prohibitions and restrictions on use;
  • creating conditions for reproduction through access to free migration of animals;
  • creation of protected areas and national parks and other activities.

All plants and animals listed in the Red Book must be withdrawn from economic circulation. Any activity that will lead to a reduction in the number of a particular species of flora or fauna is not allowed.

However, today we can conclude that the Red Book does not give great results, and nature is in mortal danger. If at the beginning of the century only 1 species disappeared per year, now it is daily. And this will happen until every person is imbued with the problem and takes a step towards saving the planet.

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