Eurasian Union. Countries of the Eurasian Union

Eurasian Union. Countries of the Eurasian Union
Eurasian Union. Countries of the Eurasian Union
Anonim

The Eurasian Union (EAEU) is an integration economic association and political alliance of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Countries must enter it by January 1, 2015. The Eurasian Union is being created on the basis of the Customs Union. The participating states signed an agreement on this on May 29, 2014. The Eurasian Union should consolidate the countries that will enter it, mutually strengthen their economies, promote modernization and increase the competitiveness of goods on the international market. The countries of the Eurasian Union, which have already signed the agreement, expect in the future to join the union of Kyrgyzstan and Armenia.

Eurasian Union

Who owns the idea of ​​creating the EAEU

The idea to create a Eurasian Union occurred to the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev. According to his ideas, the unification implies the introduction of a single currency, which will be called " altyn". In 2012, this idea was supported by Medvedev and Putin.

Start integration

What is the Eurasian Union? To understand, let's go back to the origins. The expansion of economic cooperation and related integration processes began to gain momentum back in 2009. Thenthe participating countries managed to sign about forty international agreements that formed the basis of the Customs Union. Since January 2010, a single customs zone has been operating on the territory of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. In the same year, a summit was held in Moscow, at which the features of a new association based on the CES - the Eurasian Union began to become clearer.

Eurasian Union countries

Declaration on the establishment of EVRAS

On October 19, 2011, the presidents of the countries that are members of the Eurasian Economic Community approved the decision to join the union of Kyrgyzstan. Already on November 8, 2011, the heads of Kazakhstan, Belarus and Russia endorsed the Declaration on the establishment of EVRAZS. In Moscow on November 18, Lukashenka, Nazarbayev and Medvedev signed several important documents that formed the basis of the association:

  • agreement on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Commission;
  • commission work rules;
  • declaration of economic integration.

The declaration also indicated the deadline for the transition to the next stage of integration - January 1, 2012. It implies the creation of the Common Economic Space, which will function on the principles and norms of the WTO and will be open to the entry of new member countries at any stage of the integration process. The ultimate goal was to create EVRAS by 2015.

Eurasian Economic Union

SES

From January 1, 2012, a single economic space began to function on the territory of the participating states. It should contribute to the stable development of the economythese countries, as well as a general improvement in the standard of living of their citizens. The CES agreements, which were adopted in 2011, began to work in full only in July 2012.

Supranational Parliament

In February 2012, S. Naryshkin (Chairman of the State Duma) said that after the creation of the Common Economic Space and the Customs Union, the countries intend to continue integration processes and create a supranational Eurasian parliament. This should further deepen the integration. In fact, the Customs Union and the CES are just the base for EVRAZ. And on May 17, he said that Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia created working groups to develop a draft parliament of association, which is the Eurasian Economic Union. Consultations were to be held with the Belarusian and Kazakh parliaments. But the initiatives of the State Duma of the Russian Federation did not receive approval in them. Representatives of Kazakhstan issued a statement in which they urged not to rush into the political part, but to focus all efforts on economic integration. They emphasized that any associations are possible only if the sovereignty of each of the participating countries is respected. As a result, the Eurasian Customs Union turned out to be somewhat premature politically.

Consultations on the single currency

What is the Eurasian Union

Advisor to the President of the Russian Federation Glazyev on December 19, 2012, made a statement that consultations were actively conducted on the single currency. But no positive decisions were made. However, he stressed that the ruble dominates within the framework of the Customs Union. Its weight insettlements is more than 90%.

2013 Consultations and Decisions

In September 2013, Armenia expressed a desire to join the Customs Union. In the same month, plans for Eurasian integration were once again announced by L. Slutsky, including the project to create a supranational parliament. They wanted to include this provision in the agreement on EVRAZS. However, the Kazakh side once again stated that this initiative would not be supported. Kazakhstan does not accept any provisions on supranational political authorities. This position has been voiced by the country's leadership more than once. The maximum that Kazakhstan agrees to is the format of inter-parliamentary cooperation.

Belarusian President A. Lukashenko also said that he would not support "supranational superstructures" and the single currency. He said that Russian politicians like to "throw" on the agenda what is now unrealistic to do. Lukashenka also said that the union was originally conceived as an economic one. And we are talking about the general political authorities. States have not yet come to this - they have not felt a strong need for this. Therefore, political bodies are not on the agenda and should not be artificially pushed through. N. Nazarbayev supported A. Lukashenko and emphasized the full sovereignty of the participating countries.

Eurasian Customs Union

Syria's desire to join the Customs Union

In 2013, on October 21, during a visit to Russia, Syrian Deputy Prime Minister Qadri Jamil made a statement about his state's desire to become a member of the Customs Union. Healso stressed that Syria has already prepared all the necessary documentation.

Kazakhstan's fears

In October, at the summit of the member countries of the Customs Union, the head of Kazakhstan, N. Nazarbayev, proposed to completely stop the existence of EVRAZ, or to accept Turkey. He stressed that, often visiting abroad, he had repeatedly heard opinions that Russia was creating a “second USSR” or something similar under itself. However, in November of the same year, an agreement on good neighborliness and strategic partnership was signed between the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. But about the politicization of the union, Nazarbayev remained adamant. But the problem was not only in the political component. Kazakhstan and Belarus demanded significant concessions from the Russian Federation in the economic sphere. Minsk wanted the abolition of any duties, and Astana wanted equal access to Russian oil and gas pipelines for the transit of hydrocarbons. The total amount of subsidies that Kazakhstan and Belarus need annually is $30 billion. These expenses should become a serious burden for the RF budget.

In 2014, the agreement was still signed by the participating countries. The Eurasian Union saw the light. The flag and anthem of the association have not yet been approved. However, tensions between states still remain.

EVRAZS benefits

Economic union should level trade obstacles. It implies the free circulation of goods, capital, services, the common labor market. Collegiate decisions and a common policy should be made with regard to key sectors of the economy.

Eurasian Union flag

What providesintegration process

The goals of integration are:

  • decrease in prices of goods and services;
  • reduce transport costs;
  • stimulating competition;
  • market growth;
  • increase in productivity and production volumes;
  • increasing the employment rate.

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