- Ship missions
- History of frigate design
- Projects 1155 and 11351
- Indian order
- Differences from the prototype
- Resemblance to prototype
- Order delivery
- 11356R Frigates
- Admiral Makarov
- Comparison with project 22350
Since the middle of the 20th century, the role of relatively small ships has increased among the ships of almost all the world's largest fleets. In the US, these ships are called escort destroyers.
The main function of these vessels is to protect relatively low-speed convoys from attack by submarines. Therefore, compared to a full-fledged destroyer, an escort destroyer has lower speed, less tonnage and less armament. However, later, with the development of technology, the use of nuclear power plants, it was possible to dramatically increase the speed of submarines, as a result of which high-speed guards were needed. The development of anti-ship missiles required the strengthening of anti-aircraft weapons. Therefore, in the end, the price and displacement distinguish the patrol boat from the destroyer.
History of frigate design
In the 1960s, it was decided to add expensive large anti-submarine ships to the fleet with new patrol ships. Despite being smaller than the BOD, the ships were no worse armed. Starting in 1964, the development of project 1135 began - a frigate with a displacement of more than two thousand tons. It was planned to arm the ships with the Purga anti-submarine missile system, the Osa-M air defense system, and the four-pipea torpedo tube, two twin AK-726 artillery systems and RBU-6000 complexes. It was also planned to equip the ship with the modern Titan-2 sonar system.
True, the problems that emerged during the tests of the Purga complex and the too short maximum range (6 km) forced it to be abandoned in favor of the quad launcher of the Metel anti-submarine system with a range of 50 km. True, it turned out that the range was somewhat excessive, since the Titan-2 station had a significantly lower detection range.
In addition, the number of torpedo units, anti-aircraft systems was doubled. The project ships were equipped with the Vega towed sonar system. The displacement of Project 1135 ships has also increased, reaching 3200 tons. The ships launched successfully carried out their combat missions. Thanks to the use of gas turbine engines, they developed a decent speed (32 knots) and were able to operate at ranges up to 4000 miles.
Ships of projects 1135 and their modifications of project 1135M liked the sailors. For 10 years, 32 ships of projects 1135 and 1135M have been produced.
True, the ships had a serious flaw - they did not have a helicopter hangar. With the development of technology in many fleets, the tasks of searching for and destroying submarines fell, in addition to shipborne assets, to aircraft deployed on ships.
Projects 1155 and 11351
As a result, the introduction of the helicopter hangar resulted in the creation of the project 1155 BOD, the construction of which was occupied by two B altic shipyards. At the Kerch shipbuilding plant began to produceupgraded patrol boats of project 11351, which were planned to be transferred to the border guards.
The presence of a helicopter made it possible to search, pursue ships that violated the border. The stern was freed to accommodate the hangar. In this regard, shipbuilders moved one AK-100 to the bow of the ship. As a result, the number of air defense systems and gun mounts with a caliber of 100 mm was halved. To protect the ships from air attacks, a pair of six-barreled AK-630 submachine guns with a caliber of 32 mm was installed at the stern. A new sonar was also installed. In part of the ships built under Project 11351, the Angara radar system was replaced with the latest Fregat-M2.
All this allowed the ships of project 11351 to outperform the ships of previous projects.
In the 90s, the development of the fleet almost stopped. Factories tried to survive on export orders. Russia had a long history of cooperation with the Indian Navy, which constantly worked with Soviet shipbuilders in the field of purchasing domestic ships and in the field of consulting for Indian designers. India, conducting its own development, became interested in the export version of the project 11351 watchdog - project 11356.
Even at the initial stage, the frigates of project 11356 differed significantly from project 11351, which served as a prototype for the new development. RBU-6000 were replaced by Uran missile launchers for anti-ship protection. Further, the trends of the times and the wishes of the Indian customer radically changed the appearance andstuffing frigate.
Differences from the prototype
Soviet border guards used Project 11351 ships for patrol purposes and to combat poaching in the coastal waters of the USSR. Therefore, it had almost no anti-ship weapons.
The Indian customer needed a versatile ship that could withstand any enemy. This is how the frigate pr. 11356 was born. Almost all of the ship's weapons were replaced. SAM "Osa-M" was replaced by "Shtil-1". Launchers for Club anti-ship missiles appeared. The medium-caliber artillery was updated - the A-190E gun mount of 100 mm caliber appeared.
From hydroacoustics, the Indians preferred the Humsa APSON system. All frigate equipment is controlled by the Demand-ME system.
The appearance also has significant differences. The frigate pr. 11356 has less visibility for radars. Deck buildings, based on the experience of past wars, are made of steel, not aluminum. Aluminum showed little fire resistance.
Resemblance to prototype
But the ship's hull and power unit M-7NE retained a high degree of similarity with a successful prototype. The increase in armaments and the growth of fuel reserves, allowing reaching a cruising range of 4500 miles, led to an increase in displacement by 20% - up to 4035 tons. At the same time, the maximum speed that the frigate 11356 developed fell from 32 to 30 knots. That's an acceptable price to pay for more features.
The first frigate 11356 was commissioned in the spring of 2003, three months later the second was commissioned, and in 2004 the third. India began operating ships.
While tests have revealed minor compatibility issues with some weapon systems, Indian customers have appreciated the potential of the 11356 frigate.
The successful implementation of the first order was followed by a contract for three more frigates. The ships were built according to the modified project 11356M. Now the ships were equipped with BrahMos ultra-fast anti-ship missiles, developed jointly by Russian and Indian specialists, instead of the Club system. The customer received the ships of the new project in 2012-2013. Repair of frigates 11356 in India is carried out by the Russian side.
In 2010, three more ships were laid down. Now these are ships with the index 11356R - for the needs of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia. In 2012-2013, 3 more ships of this series were laid down. The new frigate 11356 is similar in design to the Indian one, but has differences in weapons. The equipment of the ships is made in Russia.
- "Admiral Grigorovich" (early 2010, being tested);
- Project 11356 frigate “Admiral Essen” (laid down in 2011, being tested);
- Admiral Makarov (early 2012, launched in 2015);
- "Admiral Butakov" (early 2013);
- "Admiral Istomin" (early 2013);
- "Admiral Kornilov" (early 2014).
Surrender of the last three shipsplanned for 2016.
Ships are being built at a fast pace. The fleet needs ships such as the Project 11356 frigate. Airbase - a forum where the characteristics of ships are analyzed in detail. Experts and caring people gather there.
The fate of the last 3 ships is still unknown due to the fact that there are no diesel generators on the frigate pr. 11356. They were manufactured in Ukraine. If the frigate "Admiral Butakov" of project 11356 is already close to launching, the rest of the ships are frozen. They are expected to be replaced by Russian counterparts, which may delay delivery by 1-2 years.
Ships for projects 11356 and 22350, which were previously equipped with Ukrainian gas turbine engines, will soon be equipped with Russian counterparts. Their characteristics significantly exceed the parameters of Ukrainian power plants by several times.
The first three frigates of project 11356 and the first two of project 22350 already use gas turbine engines made in Ukraine. In the future, the vessels of both projects are planned to be equipped with Russian-made engines.
Work on the creation of engines is already underway on the basis of existing GTE projects. The first Russian engines are planned to be produced by 2018.
The frigate "Admiral Makarov" of project 11356, which was ordered for the Black Sea basin, was launched in early September this year. He became the third of six ships in the series of project 11356. "Admiral Grigorovich" is on sea trials. It hasn't been released yet. Mooringtests of the frigate "Admiral Essen".
The ship has effective anti-ship weapons and air defense systems to successfully repel air strikes.
Anti-ship complex "Caliber-NK2. A-190 artillery system, which allows firing at sea and air targets. Shtil-1 air defense system with all-round radar.
The anti-submarine complex consists of 533-mm torpedo tubes of the DTA-53-11356-2 modification and the RBU-6000 bombing unit.
The Fregat-M2EM radar is used as a sonar weapon, detecting and tracking submarines.
To work with helicopters, the frigate is equipped with a hangar and a platform for takeoff and landing. Such weapons make the Project 11356 Admiral Makarov frigate a formidable force.
Comparison with project 22350
Project 22350 is being implemented along with project 11356. Let's compare the frigates of project 11356 and 22350. As an air defense system, instead of Shtil-1, there are 3S14U1 firing systems and Polyment-Redut air defense systems. For anti-ship protection, instead of Caliber-NK, Onyx or Caliber-NKE complexes are used. These weapons make it possible to effectively use the Project 11356 frigate against American ships.
Project 22350 frigates anti-submarine equipment - Medvedka-2 launch systems. The ship's artillery armament has also undergone changes. The 100mm A-190 gun mount was replaced by a 130mmA-192, firing at 22 km. At the same time, the frigates of projects 11356 and 22350 have much in common - both projects are equipped with very modern weapons.