The electoral system is an important component of any political regime. It establishes the rules for the creation of government bodies and influences the electoral process. In a broad sense, the "electoral system" is social processes and election-related rules, and in a narrow sense, it is a way of counting votes and distributing seats in government bodies among candidates. What is an election in the context of an electoral system? This is its main component, existing along with other ways of forming authorities (inheritance, forcible seizure, appointment to positions).
Let's try to give an optimal definition of what elections are. This is a democratically oriented procedure for the nomination and subsequent election of candidates for public office; the same procedures in commercial joint-stock and public organizations. Analytical research is mandatory before political elections,study of public opinion. The candidate's task is to determine "his" electorate. Studies that give an idea of the motives of groups of future voters are essential.
In Russia, what elections are has been known for a long time, because they have, contrary to common opinion, long-standing traditions. The life of the medieval republics of Novgorod and Pskov was regulated by elections.
Thanks to them, Boris Godunov and Mikhail Romanov became kings. For many centuries they regulated the life of the Cossacks and the Orthodox Church. Zemstvo institutions of the 19th century were also elective: village, peasant elders were elected by the community.
In the era of the USSR, general civil elections acquired a conditional, formal character. No one talked about what elections are in the full sense. Only under Gorbachev did the situation change, and both independent candidates and oppositionists began to participate in them. There was even the idea of electing directors of institutions and enterprises. The political activity of the population increased sharply. Pre-election events were held in the traditional form of rallies, meetings with voters, live TV broadcasts, radio messages, support for newspapers and magazines, organizing social movements, etc.
Elections in Russia first began to be accompanied by political advertising in the 90s. This was especially evident during the April 1993 referendum. In the presidential elections of 1996, television commercials of political advertising began to be used. There is a practice of using the resources of advertising agencies,batches fulfilling orders.
The problem of Russian voters today is that they do not have clear guidelines - charismatic leaders. Therefore, people are apathetic and often simply refuse to vote.
What are democratic elections? They are held in accordance with the following principles: mandatory, periodicity, universality of suffrage, alternative choice, equal rights of candidates, observance of the law, free expression of the will of voters, guarantees of secret voting, transparency and open nature of the holding.