Table of contents:
- Party Formation
- Main features of political parties
- The difference between a party and a socio-political movement
Social science tests contain a task that continues this formulation. Let's figure it out.
There are two types of political power - state and public. The main instrument and the main subject of the exercise of political power is a political party. The organization brings together the most energetic adherents of a particular ideology or a particular leader, organizes them and serves to fight for the highest political power.
The focus on gaining political power is the principle of activity and the main structure-forming component of a political party. If an organization is fighting for power, it is a political party; if it does not fight, but only tries to influence it in one way or another, then this is only a socio-politicalmovement (OPD).
In the era of the Middle Ages and early modern times, when all power belonged to the monarch, parties could not appear. Even after monarchs allowed citizens to influence the political process, political organizations did not take on the form we know them today.
The well-known German sociologist M. Weber saw three stages in the formation of political parties:
- Aristocratic circles (coteria) where people gathered and discussed political issues along with fashion, culture, etc. Similar circles appeared in England after the English Revolution. Tories, Conservatives, Puritans and Whigs, Liberals, Anglicans discussed issues in closed meetings of this kind. An example of such a circle can be considered a society that gathered at Anna Pavlovna Sherer, a character in Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace.
- The second stage in the formation of political parties was represented by political clubs. They differed from koterias in the presence of membership, while everyone who entered the high society could take part in the activities of aristocratic circles. The first such political club, the Charlton Club, was founded by the Conservatives in London in 1831. A few decades later, the Reform Club, created by the Liberals, appeared.
- Towards the end of the 19th century, political clubs began to transform into mass parties, a feature of which was the focus on gaining political power. This is the third stage in the formation of parties. The first suchthe organization was founded in Great Britain in 1861 and is considered the forerunner of the modern British Labor Party.
Main features of political parties
The focus on gaining political power is a characteristic feature of a political party. To what extent can a party, perhaps not very large, really claim full possession of state power? It cannot really exercise state power, but any political party should participate in the electoral process and try to influence power, otherwise it cannot be considered as such.
A political party must have a structured organization that implies the presence of ordinary members and governing bodies, as well as program documents (charter). The charter defines the goals and objectives, the procedure for admission, the procedure for exclusion, the procedure for appointing persons to the highest party positions. The program must define the strategic and tactical tasks, that is, the goals to which the party is striving. Aiming at the conquest of political power is the main goal of any political party, except for the one that is already in power.
Another important feature is the struggle for influence among the masses. At the present stage of political development, when the world is dominated by mass parties, any of them seeks to increase its electorate, to attract the largest number of supporters.
The difference between a party and a socio-political movement
Since a socio-political movement initially represents the interests of a particular social group, it is rather difficult for it to fight for expanding its influence among the masses. The SRO may not have a fixed membership at all, the governing bodies may be elected and re-elected quite often. The movement is trying to influence the government, while the political party is trying to come to power. A focus on political power is the main hallmark of a political party.
Political parties in modern society perform a number of functions.
- The social function consists in a generalized expression and protection of the interests of any social group, bringing its requirements to the level of state power.
- Ideological function - development, dissemination and propaganda of party ideology.
- Winning and exercising political power is the political function of any political party.
- The organization and direction of government action is a managerial function.
- Participation in elections, organizing election campaigns and other forms of participation in the electoral process is an electoral function.
To summarize. Aiming at the conquest of political power is … The following theses can be answers to this question:
- the main purpose of the party;
- its characteristic feature;
- one of her functions.