Table of contents:
- A bit of history
- In Russia
- About line-up
- B altic Fleet
- Black Sea Fleet
- Northern Fleet Marine Corps
- Navy in the Caspian Sea
- Introduction to formation
- About Specializations
- Checking applicants
- Last step
- In conclusion
Even in ancient times, coastal areas were chosen as a place for hostilities. The main goal pursued by each opposing side was to capture the coastal cities. Thus, it would be possible to block the enemy's main trade and supply of ground forces. Infantry was used as the main tool. According to military experts, this military branch is effective on land and at sea. To perform delicate tasks, namely sabotage and reconnaissance, special forces of the Marine Corps are involved.
A bit of history
The Roman army made a great contribution to the creation of modern marines. According to the researchers, already in Rome they began to think about creating the first special forces units on warships. The Vikings also landed foot soldiers on the enemy shore, from whose military campaigns all Western Europe was in fear. Similar tactics of warfareproved to be very effective, as a result of which it became one of the elements of military strategy. Soon, the maritime powers began to equip their fleets with special units, which were also called boarding teams. Today, the navies of many leading countries have similar formations. For example, in the United States of America, the Marine Corps is the main striking force of her army.
It was decided to create special infantry units as part of the Navy after the Great Northern War. According to researchers, Peter the Great played a big role in this matter. During his reign, several special infantry teams were formed, which were used as boarding and assault groups. Their high efficiency was demonstrated in battles with the Swedes. As a result, in November 1705, a royal decree was issued on the creation of a regiment of naval soldiers as part of the B altic Fleet. It was from this time that a new military clan began its history. Today, the day of the marines in Russia is celebrated on the date of the royal decree, namely November 27th. Initially, and until 1811, the marines were part of the Russian Imperial Navy. From 1811 to 1833 was assigned to the Russian Imperial Army, from 1914 to 1917. - fleet, and until 1991 - the Navy of the Soviet Union.
Today, this type of troops is subordinate to the Navy of the Russian Federation. 35,000 people serve in the Marine Corps.
The structure of the Marine Brigade is represented by battalions, batteries and other support units andsecurity. Each regiment has three battalions, namely reconnaissance, air assault and tank. Each of them has its own combat mission and certain weapons.
Such a structural distribution, according to military experts, guarantees an effective offensive of the marines, the liberation of a number of cities with further clearance from occupations. In the post-war period, units of the Marines were completely disbanded. However, this state of affairs did not last long. Soon, the parts were assembled again and they can be used for their intended purpose and participate in international exercises.
B altic Fleet
The Marine Corps of the B altic Fleet is represented by the following formations:
- 336th Separate Guards Bialystok Brigade of the Orders of Alexander Nevsky and Suvorov. Stationed in military unit No. 06017 in B altiysk.
- 877th separate battalion in the city of Sovetsk.
- 879th separate air assault battalion in B altiysk.
- 884th Separate Marine Battalion (B altiysk).
- 1612th separate self-propelled howitzer artillery battalion. The formation is based in the village of Mechnikovo.
- 1618th separate anti-aircraft missile artillery battalion in the village of Pereyaslavskoe.
- Materials Battalion.
- Airborne reconnaissance company.
- Battery of guided anti-tank missiles (ATGM).
- Company of Signalmen.
- Sniper rifle company.
- Flame thrower company.
The naval infantry of the B altic Fleet is also equipped with a commandant platoon, medical aid and maintenance companies.
Black Sea Fleet
According to experts, the Black Sea is strengthened by a fairly powerful group of Russian marines. The main strike force is represented by a separate brigade No. 810. In addition, separate battalions No. 557, 542, 382, 538, separate artillery battalions No. 546, 547, separate companies (5 formations), platoons (3), separate training ground No. 13 and a battery of anti-tank guided missiles.
Northern Fleet Marine Corps
The village of Sputnik has become the place of permanent deployment of the legendary Kirkenes 61st Regiment. Additionally, in the Northern Fleet, the Russian marines were reinforced with five separate battalions No. 874, 876, 886, 125, 810, three separate artillery battalions and a missile and artillery battalion No. 1617. The SF also has a naval infirmary and a maintenance unit.
According to experts, recently in the Pacific Ocean, the Russian marines have significantly lost their striking power. It was decided to leave only the 155th brigade and the third separate regiment in this region with a permanent location in Kamchatka. These units are considered the main ones in the Pacific Fleet. In addition, the Naval Infantry consists of the 59tha separate battalion and a separate battalion of signalmen No. 1484.
Navy in the Caspian Sea
As in the Pacific Ocean, reforms in the army also affected the Caspian flotilla. As a result, the 77th brigade, which was considered the most combat-ready in the region, was reduced. Today, in this direction, the security of the country is provided by a separate marine brigade (OBMP) No. 727 and the 414th separate battalion.
The above military formations are quite effective, but to perform certain tasks, specialized forces are needed, the fighters of which undergo special training. More about the special forces of the Navy next
Introduction to formation
Special forces of the marines were created to carry out reconnaissance and subversive activities at sea and in coastal zones. Often a soldier of this unit is called a combat swimmer. However, according to experts, such a definition is incorrect. In view of the fact that the main activity of the special forces of the Marine Corps is reconnaissance of enemy positions, in this case the name "scout diver" is considered more correct. Like land intelligence, naval intelligence is subordinate to the General Staff of the Main Intelligence Directorate.
When a country is at war, the Marine Special Forces perform the following functions:
- Enemy coastal bases and naval vessels are mined.
- Identify and destroy maritime and coastal assets and facilities with which the enemy can launch a missile attack.
- Producereconnaissance in the sea and coastal area, coordinate air strikes and the work of ship artillery.
It would seem that in peacetime the above skills will not be in demand. However, according to experts, this is not the case. Of course, they are not as massive as during the war, but they are used to counter terrorists. The fact is that criminals often seize ships or resort areas. In such situations, the special forces of the Marine Corps are involved, which coordinates their actions with other law enforcement agencies.
Today, the Special Forces of the Navy consists of four naval reconnaissance posts (MRPs). At the moment, the Russian Navy has the following MCI:
- 42nd Separate Marine Reconnaissance Point (OMRP) of the Special Forces. Place of deployment of military unit No. 59190 (Vladivostok region). MCI is assigned to the Pacific Fleet.
- OMRP special purpose (SpN) No. 561 of the B altic Fleet (Sailing village).
- OMRP SpN No. 420 of the Northern Fleet. The formation is deployed in the Murmansk region in the village of Polyarny.
- OMRP SpN 137. Military unit No. 51212 is located in Tuapse and is assigned to the Black Sea Fleet.
According to experts, such an arrangement of reconnaissance points was not chosen by chance. The MCI is located in such a way that it is more convenient to work with it for the employees of the Main Headquarters of the GRU operating in the given region. The staff of the naval reconnaissance post is completed by four autonomous groups of 14 people each. It is noteworthy thatthe technical staff who are responsible for communication between groups and repairing equipment exceeds the total number of fighters by 20%. Each item consists of three groups of different specializations. If necessary, they can perform a common task, but due to personalized training, special forces have an advantage.
The first group is trained to destroy objects on the coastal territory as quickly and efficiently as possible. They have to act not only in the water. In this regard, the training of fighters of the naval special forces practically does not differ from the training that is provided for the ground detachments of the Main Intelligence Directorate. The fighters of the second group are taught to discreetly collect information about the location of enemy objects. According to experts, the uniqueness of the training for the third group lies in the fact that the special forces are trained to move unnoticed in the water, since their main task is to carry out mining. Although these groups are provided with in-depth skills in a specific area, fighters are also taught general skills. For example, they must work together when landing from the sea, air or land.
Due to the fact that the special forces are called upon to perform tasks of a specific nature, it is not easy to get a black beret for a marine and get into the ranks of this formation. When selecting applicants, special attention is paid to their physical and psychological he alth. Contract servicemen, cadets of the naval school and conscripts go to the naval special forces, who in the future wishconnect your life with the army.
According to experts, you can get into the naval special forces only after successfully passing the most difficult tests. To overcome heavy loads, the applicant must be in good physical shape. The commission examines the applicants' questionnaires and identifies those for whom scuba diving is contraindicated. Those who are shorter than 175 cm are automatically screened out. It is desirable that the weight be in the range of 70 to 80 kg. Further work with the remaining applications. Having become acquainted with personal qualities, the psychologist gives his conclusion. Then they check how physically and mentally the applicant is ready to serve in the Marine Corps.
First of all, the physical form is checked. The applicant must run a 30-kilometer forced march with 30-kilogram ammunition. Next, stress resistance is determined. The command must know how the fighter will react if he finds himself in an unusual situation. The test is carried out in the cemetery. The subject is simply left alone at night among the graves. According to experts, this method is the most effective, since in 3% of applicants the psyche cannot withstand it. Such participants are eliminated.
Very often, those who want to serve in the naval special forces do not realize that they have claustrophobia or hydrophobia. To identify these problems, simulate a torpedo tube. The applicant needs to swim through a 12-meter narrow (530 mm wide) enclosed space. If a person is dressed even in a light diving suit, such a pipe width is too narrow for him. At the same time, this method is veryeffective, as it allows you to identify phobias. This is followed by a test called "helmet purge". The bottom line is to fill the helmet with water. The participant dives and opens the mask at a shallow depth. Then it returns to its original place, and the water is bled off using a special valve. This test is considered quite serious as it gives an idea of how calm the applicant will be in a critical situation.
Since the first time most of those who wish begin to panic, the command takes two attempts to pass this test. If the second time the applicant failed to cope with his mental state, he is eliminated. To test physical endurance and psychological stability, a final test is provided. Its essence lies in the fact that the applicant needs to swim in a diving suit under water for a kilometer and a half distance. It is noteworthy that the air in the cylinder is under pressure of 170 atmospheres. If a person is calm, then the correct breathing technique is used, as a result of which the pressure decreases only to 6 atmospheres. If the applicant becomes nervous and panicky, his state changes and he begins to breathe through his mouth. This technique is considered incorrect. As a result, the pressure inside the balloon drops to 30.
Since the commandos are not single saboteurs, much attention is paid to mutual trust and a normal atmosphere within the team. Since the previous tests are technically impossible to carry out all in one day, for sureapplicants during the test will have time to get to know each other. Each of the participants receives a list in which he needs to choose a person from the list of fellow students with whom he would work in pairs. Wearing the uniform of a marine is not destined for the applicant whom no one has chosen. They also weed out those who received the smallest number, since there is no desire to cooperate with them. When all the tests are successfully passed, the cadets are divided into parts and begin to train.
According to experts, the specifics of the work of the naval special forces is that without a long application of skills, they are lost. Therefore, constant training and improvement of skills for OMRP fighters are considered the norm.