The concept of personality in philosophy and sociology

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The concept of personality in philosophy and sociology
The concept of personality in philosophy and sociology

While the concept of "man" emphasizes his biosocial origin, "personality" is associated mainly with his social and psychological aspects. These include self-esteem, self-esteem, value orientations, beliefs, principles by which a person lives, his moral, aesthetic, socio-political and other social positions, his beliefs and ideals. As well as the character, features of his intellect, the style and independence of his thinking, the specifics of his emotional composition, willpower, way of thinking and feeling, social status. The concept of "personality" in the history of philosophy was considered from a variety of points of view.


The concept of personality in philosophy, psychology and sociology is one of the key. The term itself comes from the Latin word persona, meaning mask. Personality is the patterned set of habits, traits, attitudes, and ideas of an individual. Because they are organized externally into roles and statuses and internally related to motivations, goals, and various aspects of the self.

If we briefly present the concept of personality in philosophy, we canto say that this is her essence, meaning and purpose in the world.

man as a person
man as a person

According to Robert Park and Ernest Burgess, it is the sum and organization of those traits that define her role in the group. For other psychologists, this concept covers an organized set of psychological processes and statuses related to a person. It is also all that a person has experienced and experienced, because all this can be understood as unity. In addition, this concept refers to the habits, attitudes and other social traits that are characteristic of the behavior of a given person. According to Jung, a personality is a set of individual behavior with a given system of tendencies, interacting with a series of situations.

Different points of view

Based on these definitions, we can say that, in addition to the philosophical, there are two more main approaches to the study of personality:

  • psychological;
  • sociological.

Psychological approach considers a person as a certain style, characteristic of her. This style is determined by the characteristic organization of mental tendencies, complexes, emotions and moods. The psychological approach allows us to understand the phenomena of personality disorganization and the role of desires, mental conflict, repression and sublimation in its growth. The sociological approach considers a person from the point of view of the status of the person, her understanding of her role in the group of which she is a member. What others think of us plays a big role in shaping our personality.


Thus, personality is the sum of a person's ideas, attitudes and values that determine his role in society and form an integral part of his character. It is acquired as a result of his participation in group life. As a member of a group, he learns certain behavioral patterns and symbolic skills that define his ideas, attitudes, and social values. These ideas, attitudes and values are the building blocks. Considering the main definition, it should be taken into account that the concepts of "man", "individual", "individuality" and "personality" in philosophy are of the same order, but not identical.

personalities and individualities
personalities and individualities


Considering briefly the concept of personality in philosophy, it should be noted that it is a product of social interaction in group life. In society, each person has different traits such as skin, color, height, and weight. People have different personality types because they don't look alike. This refers to the habits, attitudes, as well as the physical qualities of a person, they are similar, but differ from group to group and from society to society. According to this approach, everyone has a personality, which can be good or bad, impressive or unimpressive. It develops in the process of socialization in the culture of a particular group or society. It is impossible to define it individually because it varies from culture to culture and from time to time. For example, a murderer is considered a criminal in peacetime and a hero in war. Feelings and actions of a personthe time of interaction shapes the personality. It is the sum of a person's overall behavior and covers both overt and covert behavior, interests, psyche, and intellect. This is the sum of physical and mental abilities and skills.

It is impossible to imagine a person as something separate from a person or even from his external and general physical appearance. This is the face we face. When people undergo plastic surgery and a facelift, they change their appearance, which, as psychological observations have shown, also changes something in their psyche. Everything in a person is interconnected and affects the personality as a whole. What a person looks like is the outer expression of his inner world.

personal development
personal development

Connection with Philosophy

A person is considered a socially developed person, one who is part of a specific historical and natural context, a particular social group, a person with a relatively stable system of socially significant personal qualities and performing appropriate social roles. The intellectual framework of a person is formed by his needs, interests, system of views, features of temperament, emotions, willpower, motivation, value orientations, independence of thinking, consciousness and self-awareness. The central personality trait is worldview. A person cannot become a person without developing what is known as a world view, which includes his philosophical view of the world.

Knowledge of philosophy is an essential attribute of higher education and human culture. Since the outlook isthe privilege of the modern individual, and his core is philosophy, everyone must know philosophy in order to understand himself and those around him. Even those who deny and ridicule philosophy have it. Only the animal has no world view. It does not evaluate things in the world, the meaning of life and other problems. Worldview is the privilege of the individual, that is, a person ex alted by culture.

features of a person as a person
features of a person as a person

The social basis of personality

Historically and ontogenetically, a person becomes a personality to the extent that he assimilates culture and contributes to its creation. Our distant ancestor in the conditions of the primitive horde and the initial stages of the formation of society was not yet a person, although he was already a person. A child, especially in his early years, is, of course, a person, but not yet a person. He has yet to become it in the process of his development, education and upbringing.

Thus, the concept of "personality" in philosophy implies a principle that combines the biological and social into a single whole. As well as all the psychological processes, qualities and states that regulate behavior, giving it a certain consistency and stability in relation to the rest of the world, other people and oneself. Personality is a socio-historical, naturally conditioned and individually expressed being. A person is a person, because he consciously distinguishes himself from everything that surrounds him, and his attitude to the world exists in his mind as a certain point of view in life. Personality is a person who has self-awareness andworldview and achieved an understanding of their social functions, their place in the world, which realized itself as the subject of historical creativity, the creator of history.

personality as an individual
personality as an individual

Properties and mechanisms

Consideration of the concept of the problem of personality in philosophy and sociology necessitates a deeper study of its essence. It lies not in the physical nature, but in the socio-psychological properties and mechanism of mental life and behavior. In fact, this is an individual concentration or expression of social relations and functions, the subject of knowledge and transformation of the world, rights and obligations, ethical, aesthetic and all other social standards. When we talk about the concept of personality in philosophy and other sciences, we mean its social, moral, psychological and aesthetic qualities, crystallized in the human intellectual world.


In each of his basic relationships, a person acts in a special capacity. Here we are talking about a specific social function, as a subject of material or spiritual production, means of certain production relations, as a member of a certain social group, class, representative, of a certain nation, as a husband or wife, father or mother, as the creator of family relations.

The social functions that a person must perform in society are many and varied, but a person cannot be reduced to these functions, even if they are considered as a whole. The fact is that a person is something that belongs to a given person anddistinguishes him from others. In a certain sense, one can agree with the opinion of those who find it difficult to draw a line between what a person calls himself and what is his. Personality is the sum of all that a person can call his own. These are not only his physical and intellectual qualities, but also his clothes, a roof over his head, spouses and children, ancestors and friends, social status and reputation, name and surname. The structure of the personality also includes what is given to it, as well as the forces that have been embodied in it. This is a personal manifestation of embodied work.

individualism and personality
individualism and personality


The concept of personality in philosophy defines its limits much wider than the limits of the human body and its inner intellectual world. These limits can be compared to circles spreading through water: the nearest ones are the fruit of creative activity, then come the circles of family, personal property and friendship. Distant circles merge with the seas and oceans of all social life, its history and prospects. Here, the way the philosophy considers the concepts of "individual", "individuality" and "personality" comes to the fore.

The fullness of the latter is expressed in its uniqueness, in its uniqueness. This is what is called individuality. Personality as a whole is an abstraction that is concretized in real people, in separate, rational beings with all the unique properties of their psyche and physique, skin color, hair, eyes, and so on. She is a unique representative of the human race, always special and unlike any other.another person in the fullness of spiritual and material, physical life: each "ego" is unique.

Individuality as a defining quality

In this case, some special characteristics are considered. In essence, a person is an individual rational being. What else can be added? Based on the concept of personality and individual in philosophy, we can say that in a broader sense, the latter term is synonymous with a separate specific being. This also applies to the concept of "individuality". Which includes the spiritual characteristics of the individual, as well as its physical characteristics.

In the world there is nothing more individual than a person, nothing in creativity is so diverse as people. At the human level, diversity is at its peak, there are as many individuals in the world as there are people. This is due solely to the complexity of the human organization, the dynamics of which, it would seem, has no boundaries. Together, all this is based on the concepts of "man", "individual" and "personality" in philosophy. Characteristic features are determined by the presence of different opinions, abilities, level of knowledge, experience, degree of competence, temperament and character. Personality is individual to the extent that it is independent in its judgments, beliefs and views, that is, when the brain is not "stereotypical" and has unique "patterns". Each person, regardless of the general structure of his personality, has his own characteristics of contemplation, observation, attention, different types of memory, orientation, and more. The level of thinking variesfor example, from the heights of genius to the worst cases of mental retardation.


Based on the concept of personality in philosophy and sociology, people can be divided into different types - depending on the predominance of certain elements in the structure. A person may be inclined to practical or theoretical thinking, rational or intuitive understanding of reality, work with sensory images, or have an analytical mindset. There are people who are largely guided by their emotions. For example, sensual types have an exceptionally developed perception of reality. For them, sensation is a concrete expression of the fullness of their life.

Representatives of various types

Science, based on the concept of personality in philosophy and other disciplines, offers the following division. A person of the intellectual-intuitive type is constantly striving for new opportunities. He cannot be satisfied with adherence to generally recognized values, he is always looking for new ideas. People of this type are the driving force of culture, initiators and inspirers of new enterprises. Personality types can also be classified according to behavioral orientation. A person can be classified as either an extrovert or an introvert. Depending on whether he focuses on objective reality or on his inner world. Introverts are often silent and rarely or with difficulty open their hearts to others. As a rule, their temperament is melancholy, and they rarely stand out or come to the fore. Outwardly calm, even indifferent, they never try to forcesomeone else to do something. Their true motives usually remain hidden.

personality types
personality types

Personal qualities

In psychology and sociology, a person is usually characterized by his individual characteristics. They highlight qualities associated with a certain way of perceiving or judging, as well as with how a person affects the environment. Attention is focused on originality, on the features that distinguish the individual in society, on the functions that he performs, on the degree of influence he exerts, or on the impression he makes on other people: "aggressive", "submissive", "heavy" and so on. Independence, willpower, determination, intelligence and wisdom are considered very important.