Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic: map, government, president, currency and history

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic: map, government, president, currency and history
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic: map, government, president, currency and history
Anonim

After the collapse of a huge country that occupied a sixth of the land, many independent states were formed, which immediately faced many difficulties. And some the world even refuses to recognize. Such is the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. It is inhabited by brave people who not only challenged the entire "civilized" humanity, but also withstood the reciprocal pressure. However, the history of this not universally recognized state is very interesting. Its appearance on the world map is due not only to the will of the population, but also to previous events. It so happened that since the eighteenth century this territory became part of the Russian Empire. But let's dive a little deeper into the past.

How the territory was formed

Transnistrian Moldavian Republic

The history of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is not very different from that of neighboring lands. In ancient times, these places were sparsely populated. Mostly Slavic and Turkic tribes lived here. At one time, the territory was part of Kievan Rus, then it was included in the Galician-Volyn principality. In the XIV century, the land passed into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since there were few inhabitants, the transition from one jurisdiction to another did not particularly affect people. Only in the eighteenth century, after these places became part of the Russian Empire, did changes begin to occur. Taking care of the protection of the borders, the state encouraged the migration of citizens to these places. The population has become multinational. Among its inhabitants there were Bulgarians and Russians, Germans and Greeks, and, of course, Moldovans. After the revolution, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed on this territory. It was part of the Ukrainian SSR. And only in 1939, when Romania was forced to return part of the previously occupied territories to the union, was the Moldavian SSR formed, which included these lands. To understand the motives for which the population living in this territory did not wish to remain part of the new Moldova, it is important to know its history.

Formation of the industrial complex

After the formation of the MSSR, the authorities began to send specialists from the Union republics here. Basically, the Ukrainians and Russians rebuilt the current territory. For political reasons, it was here that the main industrial enterprises were created. By the time of its formation in its current form, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic provided 40% of the total GDP, generated 90% of electricity. In addition, the 14th Allied Army was based here, of course, the corresponding infrastructure was created. It turns out that the current Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic has concentrated on its territoryalmost the entire industrial potential of the country formed after the collapse of the USSR.

Official but not recognized formation of a new state

President of the PMR

The incident happened when our previously huge country fell apart into fifteen parts. That is, this division was recognized by the UN, but by no means by residents. Since Moldova was historically formed from two very different territories, its population was divided into "camps". The center considered the territory whole. Only in Transnistria they had a different opinion. The Parliament of the MSSR adopted the "Declaration of Independence", which repealed the law on the formation of a republic within the Union. But the same act, as it were, freed the territory of Pridnestrovie from state ties with the new country, since it was included in the MSSR by a decision canceled by its parliament. In Tiraspol, they were not at a loss and proclaimed on November 5, 1991, the TMR (the full name is the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic), which, in their understanding, was historically quite logical.

Administrative - territorial division

History of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic

The PMR Republic is a unitary, consists of seven administrative units. They include five districts and two cities subordinate to the republic. These are Bendery and Tiraspol. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (photo above) has its own state symbols. The flag is red with a green stripe in the middle. In the corner are crossed hammer and sickle. This area is locatedeight cities and towns, one hundred and forty-three villages and four railway stations. Some of the settlements are under the administration of Moldova. In 2011, the population exceeded five hundred thousand people of thirty-five nationalities. Most of the people (40%) identify themselves as Moldovans, Ukrainians - 26%, Russians - 24%. The government of the PMR uses three state languages ​​that are understandable to representatives of the main nationalities. The main religion is Christianity, although other groups of believers also work.

Geographic location

The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (its map is available in the article) is a fairly narrow strip of land sandwiched between Moldova and Ukraine. She has no access to the sea. The area of ​​this country is 4163 square kilometers. For reference: this is a tenth of the former MSSR.

government of the mr

The President of the PMR is working in the city of Tiraspol, the capital of the country. All government structures are located there. The terrain here is flat, sometimes there are beams. The lands are represented mainly by black soil. The climate here is moderately continental, there is not enough rainfall, but this does not harm agriculture, since a large river, the Dniester, flows through the territory. In addition, the republic also has minerals. PMR develops glass sands, deposits of gravel and building limestones. There is ceramic clay here. In the forests that are located on the slopes of the Dniester, wild boar, roe deer, partridge, hare, otter, fox, and ermine are found. Rivers supply fish, there are also sturgeons in reservoirs.

Conflictwith Moldova

The self-proclaimed state was not recognized as the main part of the former MSSR, which, by definition of the UN, was its successor. It took a long time to resolve the conflict. The leadership of Moldova created a peace plan, according to which the PMR was to form an "asymmetric federation" with it. In fact, the document rejected the independence of the territory, which was supposed to officially become part of Moldova, albeit with broad powers. Tiraspol rejected the proposal, since it was based on the principle of demilitarization, which is completely unacceptable to the population. There is a threat of a serious armed conflict.

Republic of PMR

Currently, security here is supported by peacekeepers represented by Russian, Moldovan and local military. Despite constant negotiations under the auspices of the OSCE, the tension of the conflict has not been reduced. The last surge was in the spring of 2014, when the local population turned to the President of Russia with a request to resolve the issue of joining the PMR to the Russian Federation. This event took place after the Crimean spring. Inspired people considered that they would also have a chance to unite with their historical homeland. Back in 2006, ninety-seven percent of citizens voted not only for independence from Moldova, but also for further entry into the Russian Federation. At the same time, seventy-eight percent of the electorate voted. But the "civilized community" recognized this referendum as undemocratic.

President of the PMR

The republic has its own Constitution, whichdetermines the order and form of its existence. According to the basic law, the President of the PMR is elected by direct voting. Elections are held every five years. There are certain restrictions that apply to candidates. Only a citizen of the republic who has reached thirty-five years of age, more than ten of whom live in this country, can apply for this position. The current president of the PMR is Evgeniy Shevchuk. He has a predecessor who has served in this position for twenty years. This is Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov, who had many difficulties until life in the country got better. The last presidential elections were held in 2011.

PMR currency

Economy

Despite the fact that large industrial enterprises are located in the republic, they do not give much income. Among the problems mentioned in the first place is the status of the state. It is not recognized, which hinders the establishment of economic ties and participation in large projects. The products of the enterprises are sold on the territory of Ukraine and Russia. The latter provides the PMR with ongoing support. Thus, many sources point to the continuously growing debt of the unrecognized state for gas (400 percent of GDP). The currency of the PMR is the Transnistrian ruble. It has been produced since 2005. In circulation are denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 rubles. There are also coins of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, namely: 5, 10, 25 and 50 kopecks. The banking system, as in other countries, is two-tiered. The first is a national institution, the second is commercial. Currency Pridnestrovian MoldavianThe Republic is listed only on its territory. This is all connected with the same unrecognized status of the state.

currency of the Transnistrian Moldavian Republic

Tourism potential

The Republic is trying to attract investors. A special program has been developed for this. This policy is facilitated by the convenient location and developed transport structure of the state. In addition, there are a number of settlements with a rich history. The main one is Kamenka, where many architectural monuments are located. Among them: churches, wine terraces and cellars. Residents are happy to show tourists the estate of Field Marshal P. H. Wittgenstein, part of which has been preserved in the city. In the PMR (photo) there is a reserve - "Yagorlyk". At present, opportunities are being considered for the development of green tourism in the republic, for which there is sufficient potential. Visitors are advised to definitely see the Church of the Reverend Paraskeva of Serbia, which is located in the village of Valya-Adynke, the Bendery Fortress museum complex. Residents are rightly proud of the Kolkotovaya Balka paleontological complex, which is a natural monument of world importance.

Transnistrian Moldavian Republic photo

Social sphere

The Government of the PMR pays close attention to education and he alth issues. Nine years of study is compulsory. In total, one hundred and eighty-four schools operate on the territory of the republic (six are private). At the same time, in thirty-three teaching is conducted in the Moldovan language, inthree - in Ukrainian, the rest - in Russian. There are three state universities in the PMR, in addition, there are branches of Russian and Ukrainian higher educational institutions. For example, eleven thousand students study at the university (the main university). Young people can also get higher education in Russia, where their certificate is recognized. He althcare operates on the basis of public funding. According to statistics, there are one hundred and twenty he alth workers and hundreds of beds for every ten thousand of the population. There are service centers for certain categories of citizens, including women in labor and women with children, disabled veterans of the Second World War.

Trading

The state exports its own products and raw materials. The latter includes cement, gravel, sand. Ferrous metallurgy products, mechanical engineering, electricity and textiles are also exported. Most of the goods are consumed by the Russian Federation and Ukraine. But there are also partners from far abroad. These are Syria and Turkey, Serbia and Romania, about a hundred countries in total. The PMR imports natural gas, raw materials for metallurgy, oil processing products. The country does not produce enough components for mechanical engineering, they also have to be imported.

coins of the Transnistrian Moldavian Republic

In addition, part of the food is imported from abroad (mainly meat products). The main suppliers include enterprises of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan, Moldova and Germany, Ukraine and Italy. The government is concerned that imports greatly exceed exports from the country. This is especially true for food products.A program is being developed to develop our own capacities, natural conditions are favorable for this.

Military Doctrine

The PMR has its own armed forces, created solely to protect its territory from external aggression. The military doctrine of the republic is presented as purely defensive. Unfortunately, the army is going to repel the aggression of the closest neighbor - Moldova. The troops include ground, border, internal and air forces. In addition, volunteer Cossack formations have been created. The president of the PMR is in command of the armed forces. The Republic declared itself a neutral state. It is not included in any blocks and does not plan to be included. The army is completed on the basis of universal military duty, and the Cossack formations - on a voluntary basis. In order to de-escalate tensions in the region, the PMR has repeatedly turned to Moldova with a proposal to demarcate the borders and start disarmament. No understanding was reached on this issue. On the territory of the republic there is the Operational Group of Forces of the Russian Federation. Its main goal is to protect the old arsenals that still belong to the Soviet Army.

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