Nicolae Ceausescu: biography, politics, execution, photo

Nicolae Ceausescu: biography, politics, execution, photo
Nicolae Ceausescu: biography, politics, execution, photo
Anonim

Nicolas Ceausescu was rightfully one of the most controversial political figures of the 20th century. It is undeniable that he truly led his country, Romania, to a "golden age", as well as the fact that he ruled under the yoke of tyranny for twenty-four years. A huge number of oppressed people built a road to the scaffold for Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena. It would seem that the people should have rejoiced, and they did, but only for a short time. After the death of the dictator who ruled the country with an iron fist, anarchy set in. The new authorities were completely indifferent to the common people, corruption and theft began to flourish even in the highest positions. But the ruler was already dead and buried long ago. This article will briefly describe the biography of Nicolae Ceausescu and his gradual road to execution.

Childhood of a tyrant

Ceausescu in his youth

Since he was a rather odious person, asking a question on the street about which country Nicolae Ceausescu was president of, it is easy enough to hear the answer - Romania. However, in order to understand exactly how he gained power and the reasons for many of his decisions, it is necessary to find out where he started. ChildhoodCeausescu passed in a small village called Scornicesti, where he was born on January 26, 1918 in the family of a poor peasant who, in addition to Nicolau, had ten more children. Although they lived incredibly poorly, the father still managed to give his children a primary education, but it was not enough for more. The biography of Nicolae Ceausescu begins here, where during his childhood he was subjected to the oppression of the landowners, and at the age of 15 he became an apprentice in Bucharest, that is, he began to lead an adult life by all standards. Now this seems somewhat unrealistic, since he was barely a teenager, but, according to official sources, it was at this age that he became a communist and a member of the Komsomol, and also began to actively campaign for workers' rights.

Political situation in the country

In the early years of Nicolae Ceausescu's life, Romania was on the brink of disaster. The country's small size and weak economy stood out against the backdrop of the three powerful empires that surrounded it - the Russian (which at that time was gradually becoming the Soviet Union), the Austro-Hungarian and the Ottoman. However, at that time they were already losing their influence and gradually disintegrating, but all the same, Romania from the very beginning of its formation had to pursue a very cautious policy so as not to be crushed.

All this led to the fact that almost 80% of the country's inhabitants lived in small villages and were completely illiterate. They adhered mainly to the traditions and dogmas of religion, which over time were not even modernized, as in other countries. In the 1930s, when Nicolai Ceausescu beganto act, there were only about a dozen parties in the country, almost all of which adhered to nationalism, and some even fascism. It was then that the phrase "make Romania clean of all other nationalities" appeared - it was this pro-fascist propaganda that led to the execution of Nicolae Ceausescu, because throughout his career, though not so clearly, he still defended this dogma.

Ascension to the throne

The last kings of Romania

Perhaps Nicolae Ceausescu's tyrannical tendencies were influenced by the fact that his youth was spent in Romania, which was under the command of roy alty. Let the dynasty be short-lived - it lasted less than a hundred years, but still it existed. The last ruler of the dynasty, Mihai, first came to the throne at the age of 6, although soon his father returned from his next escapade and again took the throne, supported by Marshal Ion Antonescu. However, gradually his popularity among the people fell, and after a series of defeats in the war, the end of his dictatorship came. The monarchy itself was soon overthrown.

It was against the background of the unrest that took place at that time that Ceausescu's political career began. At first he was an ardent rebel, a revolutionary, and several times he was even arrested and imprisoned in the country's darkest prison - Doftan. However, it was here that he had a fateful meeting with veterans of Romanian communism and with the country's first communist. Becoming his close, practically confidant, he gradually made his way to power. Photo by Nicolae Ceausescuconveys what he went through afterwards to become president.

Vivat, communism

In the Russian movie "Soldiers of Liberty" Nicolae Ceausescu was portrayed as the leader of the Communist Party of Romania, but in reality this is not true. He really held responsible posts and belonged to the top of the party, but he achieved this with hard work. In addition, after Stalin's death, relations between the Soviet Union and Romania became more strained. Khrushchev, trying to reject the cult of the former leader, also tried to remove the leaders of other socialist countries, which did not suit Romania sharply, and therefore they began to move away from Moscow. In the 50s, a new doctrine began to gradually form - the Romanian path to socialism, which the party members were going to follow - a new course of the party movement began.

When in 1965 the ruler of the country Georgiou-Dej gradually began to lose ground due to he alth reasons, his successor was chosen. And it was Nicolas Ceausescu who was already 47 years old. He was a kind of compromise figure, since he was responsible for the army and state security, and in addition, he enjoyed the support of Prime Minister Maurer.

Great Conductor

President of Romania

Nicholas Ceausescu became General Secretary almost simultaneously with Leonid Brezhnev, who in some way was considered his colleague in socialism. The first years of his policy were incredibly cautious, because he understood that he was a kind of "interim leader", a compromise betweengroupings. But the fact that he fully realized his opportunity and ruled for 24 years speaks in his favor. Although the reign led to the execution of Nicholas and Elena Ceausescu, but before that he was able to fully change the existing situation in the country.

Ceausescu's politics

The decision to pursue a fairly liberal policy in the first years of power was the main advantage of the future dictator. It was because of this that he was able to gain a large number of supporters among the country's intelligentsia, since the policy pursued was markedly different from the brutal regime of his predecessor. Books, newspapers, and magazines began to be actively published in the country. Radio programs could be transmitted more freely, and creative thoughts were also expressed. However, this does not mean at all that he decided to fight illiteracy - he completely left this issue to nationalism and the independence of the country.

As Ceausescu himself said in political speeches, he sought to create an independent and great state that would not depend at all on other countries of socialism. Of course, Moscow did not like this at all, and therefore the crack between the Soviet Union and Romania grew larger. However, this helped them to stabilize friendly relations with China, which was guided by the ideas of Maoism.

Gradually strengthening his power, Ceausescu put his supporters on active roles. They took the positions of secretaries of the Central Committee - including at first Ion Iliescu, who at first was an ardent supporter of Ceausescu himself, joined them. So to the next meeting of the congress in 1969almost the entire Politburo consisted precisely of people loyal to the conductor.

However, Nicolae Ceausescu understood that even the most loyal people could betray over time, and therefore carefully monitored the mood within the party and, if necessary, changed people in posts.

But the last step towards gaining power was the occupation of the troops of the socialist countries of Czechoslovakia. Ceausescu sharply condemned them, which attracted the attention of the famous American journalist Edward Baer, ​​who was in the country at that time. It is no secret that relations between the USSR and the USA after World War II were not just tense, but went down in history under the name of the Cold War, therefore the moods that prevailed at that time, which had a negative attitude towards the USSR, were only welcomed by the Americans. In his article, Baer directly wrote that a very popular leader appeared among the people of Romania.

Formation of a cult of personality

Ruler's Address

As the power of Ceausescu strengthened, his character began to change. In the photo, Nicolai Ceausescu looks like a true ruler, a kind of "father" of the people. Gradually, he began to add more and more new titles to his title of General Secretary, and the indifference of the people of the country further aggravated the "cult of the leader" that had begun to manifest itself. "People like me appear once every 500 years" - this is exactly what the dictator said to the whole country in his interview. The propaganda was gaining momentum.

When Ceausescu celebrated his 60th birthday in 1978, the whole country was preparing for this "glorious" event.It seemed that according to the then officially existing literature, the leader of the country simply did not make any mistakes, and his policy was the most ideal option. At this time, the book "Omajiu" (or "Dedication", in translation) appeared, which was intended to slavishly glorify the actions of the leader. Television and journalism were entirely aimed precisely at improving his image in the eyes of the public.

Reality of the situation

The absence of unrest among the people of Romania by this time of Ceausescu's reign can be explained by a number of factors - at that time the people were already quite submissive, because in some way they were used to being under the centuries-old yoke of the Turks. In addition, the personality of an ordinary person had practically no meaning either in a legal or in an economic sense. Romania demanded a Strong Father at the head of power, and Ceausescu met this requirement. In addition, nationalist propaganda was constantly carried out throughout the country.

However, the situation in the country for ordinary people was getting worse. Baer, ​​who previously wrote positively about the leader, simply did not understand why Ceausescu takes seriously everything that is written about him, since he was surrounded only by a crowd of flatterers. Indeed, the behavior of Nicholas and Elena Ceausescu, especially in the last years of their power, was rather strange. They seemed to be rushing about in some way, trying to show people that they were worthy of worship.

Now there is an opinion that in reality the leader did his actions, sometimes even suicidal, only because his inner circle weighed heavily the information thatcame to him. Ceausescu himself, who was preoccupied with other things, simply could not keep track of everything alone. In addition, such a disastrous financial situation of the country, which led to the austerity regime, can be explained by the fact that he tried to pay all the country's external debts as soon as possible, which he nevertheless succeeded in.

Another interesting fact is that the number of victims of the regime, indicated at the trial, which sentenced Nicolae Ceausescu to death, was noticeably exaggerated. In fact, it is not even exaggerated, but simply false - the figure of 60 thousand people was indicated in the case, although in reality this truth surfaced only after the death of the leader, only 1300 people died. Such a difference is simply colossal.

Becoming President

The most significant year for the conductor was 1974. It was then that all the power was concentrated in his hands, and therefore it was decided to elect Nicolae Ceausescu as President of Romania. After that, at the next congress, it was decided to build a developed socialism, and then a direct transition to communism. The party itself gradually became an important link in the most totalitarian system of government, so it is often associated with the Ceausescu regime. Opponents of his regime at that time simply did not exist. Despite the fact that he had many trusted people, he fully trusted only his relatives and family, through whom he controlled the main state bodies: the army, the State Planning Committee, trade unions and much more. In fact, a whole clan ruled the country, so thatnepotism.

Family life

Nikolai and Elena

At the beginning of his career, Nicolae Ceausescu met his future wife, Elena. It was she who later became his chief adviser, and it is often believed that he was completely influenced by her strong personality. He called her respectfully - "the mother of the nation", and the cult of personality surrounding her was almost stronger than that of her husband. Baer said in his notes that she was quite similar in character to Jing Qing, wife of Mao Zedong.

Both women really knew each other since 1971 and they were distinguished by similar features: lack of education, rejection of the intelligentsia, cruelty, straightforwardness, primitivism of ideas. But the most important thing was that they really were irreplaceable companions of their spouses. Ascended to the heights of power, they wanted even more. Elena Ceausescu only in 1972 began to become a major politician. Of course, her rapid rise was primarily due to her husband.

Besides, the official literature ex alted the cult of some ideal leader's family. This was indeed not true, as the problems in the family were numerous. The eldest son, Valentin, completely cut off ties with the family, daughter Zoe generally led a dissolute life, and only son Niku had excellent relations with both parents. It was he who was considered the heir to the family, although he was more inclined not to public service, but to entertainment. All this led to the fact that the people did not like the Ceausescu clan, which contrasted sharply with the opinion of the media. All this weighed heavilyby leader's reputation.

But perhaps the biggest blow to his international reputation was received by Nicolae Ceausescu in London in 1978. During his visit to the UK, he inflicted a grave insult on the royal family during an important reception. In front of everyone, he demanded that his servant taste the cooked food, expressing disbelief. In addition, there is an opinion that he came to the palace with his own sheets. It was a complete fiasco on the international stage.

Romanian Golden Age

The very idea of ​​Romanian socialism was built solely on the personality of Ceausescu. He did not rework the idea of ​​Marxism-Leninism, but simply adjusted it to suit himself and the country. He was distinguished by a clear scientific approach, which can be seen in speeches at meetings, but which, unfortunately, was quite far removed from the people. Strict control over the people, dictate in domestic politics and the dominance of the Securitate, the control body - all this is associated with the rule of Ceausescu in the 80s. Although it should really be recognized that, despite the 25-year rule, the regime of this dictator was never bloody, like that of Hitler or Stalin. Ceausescu preferred a kind of psychological terror, which was often much more effective. It is also impossible to deny the fact that he considered himself the true and sole ruler of his country, and also had the opportunity to subsequently build a certain dynasty. The palace of Nicolae Ceausescu, which was built in 1985, spoke about such encroachments. Now it is the building of the Parliament and is considered the largest administrative building in Europe.structure. Although it does not have a centuries-old history, it has greatness and size.

Apogee of government

Execution of Ceausescu

Like any tyrannical regime, Ceausescu's dictatorship also had to fall sooner or later. It began in 1989 at the next meeting of the Communist Party - it was this 14th congress that became the last one. In many ways, the situation was influenced by the international picture. Only recently the Berlin Wall was torn down, and the Soviet Union was flowing towards its own destruction. Ceausescu did not react to the reforms that appeared in the world, but, on the contrary, said that the socialist countries were returning back to capitalism, and therefore more emphasis should be placed on building communism.

The people closest to power - Securitate chief Julian Vlad, the ministers of defense and internal affairs, in whose hands most of the power was concentrated, also chose to do nothing, which was rather strange and it was subsequently assumed that they also made plans to overthrow the power of Ceausescu.

However, what led to the great discontent of the people was precisely the economic lie. Trying to quickly update the economy, Ceausescu took Western loans on a large scale, although he later repaid them, but because of this there was no money in the country, and therefore the situation practically threatened with famine. Store shelves were simply empty. It is not known for certain whether the dictator was really aware of the situation in the country, but, according to Western politicians and people who met with him in the last years of his reign, he was already a broken man andlived in a world of dreams. There are rumors that during his flight during the revolution, he was in shock from the situation and constantly muttered: "I gave them everything, I gave them everything."

Execution of a tyrant

There is a photo from the execution of Nicolae Ceausescu. There he, along with his wife, ducked at the moment when they began to be shot. So what led to the execution of the leader? In many ways, it must be admitted, he himself provoked the people. Gathering a rally on Palace Square, he did not expect that he would have to run away from the bloodthirsty people. However, for the court itself, which passed the verdict, the events in the small town of Timisoara were a weighty reason. It was the unrest that took place in it that led to the fact that the ruling elite began to divide. And after Timisoara, the leader immediately went to Iran. He returned back to a country that did not support him. Forced to flee, he was detained on December 22.

A few days later, a trial was held that in modern times would be a complete farce. The Ceausescu couple were accused even of such unrealistic things that there was no evidence of them and could not be. In fact, it was just speculation. Ceausescu denied all accusations against him. However, this simulated court pronounced a sentence of execution, which was immediately carried out. A video of the execution itself was subsequently shown on television.

Conclusion

People at the grave of Ceausescu

The grave of Nicolae Ceausescu, like that of his wife, is located on the outskirts of Bucharest. No mausoleum or other structure was erected here - itvery modest. Ordinary villagers often leave small bouquets of flowers or candles to honor the leader. The revolution in Romania was a real disaster, and even now many people remember that although Ceausescu was a dictator, it was much easier to live under him than in subsequent years.

Also interesting is the question of whether the murderers of Nicolae Ceausescu were brought to justice. The answer to this is rather ambiguous, since there was no trial. However, the people did not leave this. The participants in the dictator's trial itself are constantly receiving threatening letters, and the people who directly detained him are called murderers. According to the words of Colonel Ion Mares, who was directly involved in the events, they even refuse to serve him in stores. In general, this trial is seen by the people only as shameful.

Popular topic