Republic of Estonia: history, attractions, interesting facts and photos

Republic of Estonia: history, attractions, interesting facts and photos
Republic of Estonia: history, attractions, interesting facts and photos
Anonim

Modern Estonia is a republic in Northern Europe. This is one of the smallest countries in the European Union, but it is here that the highest gross domestic product per capita among all the former republics of the USSR.

The capital of the republic is Tallinn. The country has gained its independence several times, the last in 1990 from the Soviet Union. The official language of the country is Estonian, the currency is the euro.

Head of State, Government and Administration

President of the Republic of Estonia - Kersti Kaljulaid. She took up her post in 2016. She has a higher education, received a master's degree in business administration. She has been married twice and has three sons and a daughter.

The Government of the Republic of Estonia deals with the foreign and domestic policy of the country, coordinates the work of state institutions, submits bills to the Riigikogu, and performs other functions provided for by the Constitution of the country.

Local authorities are allowed to decide almost all issues,related to local life. Representatives of local executive authorities are elected for 4 years. Local governments have their own budget and can tax the local population, of course, within the framework of republican legislation.

The total territory of the state is 45.2 thousand square kilometers. The country is divided into 15 cities, 64 townships and 17 counties.

President of Estonia

Ancient times and the Middle Ages, German rule

Naturally, in ancient times there was no talk about the creation of the Republic of Estonia. It is believed that the first human settlement in these places was as early as 9500-9600 BC.

In the Middle Ages, the country adopts Christianity, this happens before the Livonian Crusade (XII century). During the war, the country was actually divided into two camps, which caused an uprising of the local population.

Until the 16th century, the country had a feudal system, which was replaced by serfdom. All power is with the German masters, who mocked the local population. In 1550, the largest taxes were recorded - 25%. Only since 1816, the country began to gradually abolish serfdom.

Country map

Under Sweden and Russia

Until the beginning of the last century, only the northern part of the country was called Estonia (or the modern Republic of Estonia). The rest was called Livonia. And it all started back in the 17th century, when there was an active struggle for the territories of the B altic region. Partiesthe dispute was the Commonwe alth and Sweden. After the signing of the Treaty of Bremsebru, Sweden takes possession of the entire territory of the modern country. It was Sweden that played a key role in shaping the learning process. Derpt (Tartu) University has appeared in the country, teachers' seminaries are opening, the process of publishing books in the native Estonian language is being activated.

In the 18th century, the Russian Empire began to take an interest in the B altic region. The Northern War (1700-1721) begins, after which Sweden capitulates. As a result, in 1721, Estonia, Swedish Livonia and Estonia departed Russia.

In 1783, Russia forms the Revel (Estland) province, which in terms of territory is equal to the northern part of the modern Republic of Estonia. And the southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia are transformed into the province of Livonia.

National awakening

At the end of the 19th century, the influence of the tsarist government in the region increased, because in fact a war with Germany was coming. Regular audits are carried out in the provinces of the B altic States, an active policy of Russification.

Since 1905, mass strikes have been taking place throughout the Estland province, the people are demanding liberal reforms. This situation continues until 1917.

Estonian people

The period from 1918 to 1940

As soon as the Russian Empire collapses, the formation of the Republic of Estonia begins, and as a result, on February 24, 1918, independence is proclaimed. The Soviet government recognizes the fact of the existence of the republic only in 1920, against this background, a constitution is adopted,and the country becomes a parliamentary republic.

A new constitution is adopted in 1934, but a coup d'état occurs after a few months of the regime. It was only in 1937 that the third constitution of the Republic of Estonia was adopted and entered into force on 01/01/1938. A new parliament and a president are elected.

Looking forward to the holiday

World War II

At the beginning of the war in the B altic countries, almost all economic ties with European countries are disrupted due to the pro-German mood of the country's population. Estonia has no choice but to sign a secret agreement on the division of spheres of influence. Naturally, the authorities of the USSR begin to put the strongest pressure on the country, and in 1939 the occupation of the republic by Soviet troops begins. And in 1940, the Estonian Socialist Republic appears.

Independence

In 1991, the country regains its independence, and the last Russian troops leave the territory only in 1994.

Now an independent country that joined NATO in 2004. In the same year, it becomes a member of the EU.

How ordinary people live

Neighbourhood with other countries

The state is located on the coast of the B altic Sea. It has common borders with Latvia, Finland (marine border) and Russia. By the way, to Helsinki by sea from Tallinn is only 80 kilometers. To cross the border with Latvia, a foreign passport is not needed. Until 2015, it was possible to get from Russia to Tallinn by direct train, now you can do itsomewhat more difficult.

Attractions

The Republic of Estonia, although small, has a rich and interesting history, boasts interesting historical and natural sights. Even if we do not take into account the capital of the state, there are many castles, churches and fortresses in Estonia that appeared in different historical periods.

Vyshgorodsky, one of the most famous castles of the country and the entire B altic, is located in Tallinn itself. An interesting fact is that it began to be built as early as the 13th century, and the work was completed only after 400 years. Arriving in the country, you should definitely visit the Toomkirk Dome Cathedral and the Pikk Hermann tower, the Town Hall building with the Old Thomas wing on Raekoy Square. These buildings are impressive not only for their size, but also for the variety of architectural styles presented, as they were built in different periods.

The city of Narva in the Republic of Estonia is also a place that attracts tourists. Narva Castle is located here, which is already about 500 years old.

There are several interesting islands in the country, for example, on Saaremaa you can admire the richest pine forests and chic juniper thickets. And in the area there are stone churches and windmills. And if you go to the island of Hiiumaa, you can see an old lighthouse there, which is over 600 years old. By the way, this lighthouse is the third tallest in the world.

The real cultural center of the country is the city of Tartu. There are a huge number of museums, beautiful architecture and wonderful theaters.

The capital of country

Some interesting facts

Across the entire post-Soviet space, it is Estonia that is rapidly developing and introducing progressive IT technologies into the lives of ordinary people. Already in 2005, the first online voting was held in the country. Now even taxes can be paid online. And 4G works even in the most remote parts of the country.

Estonia is a country with the richest forest resources. Even if you drive 2 kilometers from the city now, you can meet foxes, lynxes and hares.

A unique fact: despite the rather compact territory, it is on the territory of this state that there are the largest number of craters per unit area.

Despite the fact that only 1.3 million people live in the country, 2 million tourists come to Estonia every year.

There are 7 ice routes in the country, recognized by official documents, which can only be used in winter. The longest of them is 25 kilometers adjacent to the island of Hiiumaa.

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